Abstract: The context of the WHO's definition of health led to a widened understanding of the traditional health term as well as to a broadened spectrum of possible criteria for therapeutical success. Health-related quality of life, i.e. the patient's subjective state of health, has since come explicitly into the focus of medicine. Health-related quality of life stands for the individually perceived state of health. It is a dynamical construct that changes with time, as adaptation processes have…to be taken into consideration which severely diseased patients go through in the course of their disease. These are reflected as changes in the assessment of their subjective health condition. Beside a delineation of the construct, actual research and its embedding in the medical context, the following article is elucidating the methodical procedure as well as some basic assumptions in quality of life research. Subsequently, a selection of both generic and disease-specific instruments is presented that are used in the national and international field of research. The outlook will give a comparison of the different methods of dealing with response-shift processes as an essential challenge in present quality of life research.
Keywords: Quality of life, quality of life research, measurement instruments, response-shift
Abstract: Objectives. The current paper attempts to give an overview on the state of the art of quality of life assessment (HRQoL) in children as it relates to methodological and conceptual challenges, and the instruments available. Methods. In a literature search, available instruments for the assessment of children and adolescent's HRQoL were identified and evaluated with regards to several problem areas worked out within the literature search. Results. Several major issues were considered:…(1) dimensions of HRQoL relevant for children, (2) cross-culturally comparable assessment, (3) selfrated vs. externally evaluated HRQoL, (4) age-appropriate assessment, (5) disease-specific vs. generic instruments, (6) profile instruments versus index instruments, (7) HRQoL and utility- preference value. Nine generic HRQoL instruments and four utility health state classification systems complied with pre-specified inclusion criteria but met the identified challenges in different extent. Conclusion. There are instruments available measuring the HRQoL-dimensions relevant to children. If an instrument was constructed appropriately, HRQoL can be measured in an interculturally comparable manner. Selfratings should be ascertained; the children's maturity and cognitive development have to be considered. Generic instruments allow to measure HRQoL across different diseases. The use of singular index values of HRQoL is connected to strict psychometric conditions. How far utility measures are useful for children has to be investigated in further studies.
Keywords: Health related Quality of Life, Children and Adolescents, Psychometric Tests: Review
Abstract: This paper aims to give an overview of German psychodiagnostic inventories measuring stress, coping, and coping with diseases. Until today, the concepts and definitions of Lazarus' transactional stress model serve as gold standard in coping research. It is well known that stress can be a source of illness, and that illness can be a source of stress. Especially from an interventional point of view, it is necessary to measure stress and coping soundly in order to…tailor intervention to the specific needs of the patients. Therefore, several psychodiagnostic inventories were constructed to measure stress, reactions to stress, and coping with illness. German psychodiagnostic inventories are presented that investigate coping with stress for different groups and scopes: adults, children and teenagers, global coping questionnaires, and inventories for coping with diseases. A special focus is given to test construction, application, normative data, reliability and validity. Capability and limits of the actual coping research and its translation to applied fields in medical, health and rehabilitation psychology are discussed.
Keywords: Stress, coping with diseases, assessment, German language
Abstract: In recent years a number of operationalizations for different components of social support have been developed. Many of these assess perceived support. However, comparatively few instruments assess enacted support, i.e., actually provided or received support. In the present paper, we discuss a selection of either adapted or originally German inventories for the assessment of perceived and enacted social support. Aside from measures that are recipient-centered, we also included some more recent dyadic measures that…take into account the providers' as well as the recipients' perspectives of the support transactions. Moreover, measures that explicitly aim at assessing social support in the context of physical illness are presented. We conclude with a brief discussion and summary of the measures&' strengths and weaknesses.
Keywords: Perceived social support, enacted social support, dyads, assessment
Abstract: Alcohol abuse and dependence are among the most prevalent mental disorders in Germany leading to high costs in the health care system and political economy. With regard to (early) diagnosis, prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders reliable, valid and economical assessments of alcoholrelated disorders and associated aspects are of central importance. This review covers the most common evaluated German psychometric instruments assessing different aspects of alcohol use disorders. In addition, these…instruments are discussed concerning methodical aspects.
Abstract: Objectives: As the questionnaire Body related Locus of Control by Mrazek (1989) has not been used as yet in a representative sample, the aim of the study was to make a contribution to the validation and standardization of the questionnaire. Methods: The questionnaire Body related Locus of Control (KLC) and the Questionnaire for Assessing Subjective Physical Well-being (FEW-16) were administered to a representative German sample (N=2473). Results: The two-factorial structure of the KLC described by Mrazek (1989)…could be roughly prooved. Older persons endorsed external attributions more strongly and internal attributions less strongly than younger persons. Differences in body related locus of control according to gender and level of education were only small in magnitude. External locus of control was negatively, and internal locus of control was positively correlated with physical well-being (FEW-16). Norm values are presented. Conclusion: The questionnaire KLC seems to offer a clinically relevant, valid and economical assessment of important aspects of attribution styles.
Keywords: Body related locus of control, physical well-being, representative survey, standardization