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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is challenging companies worldwide and undergraduate courses need to consider this context within their disciplines, especially regarding human factors and ergonomics. For this, professors should plan how to insert this knowledge into the program content of their discipline. OBJECTIVE: This commentary aims to present how this insertion will be conducted in the second academic semester of 2020 in the discipline “Productive Systems” of the mechanical engineering undergraduate course offered by a Brazilian university. METHODS: This commentary is based on the authors’ points of view and experiences. However, the presented discussion is based…on institutional websites and international articles. RESULTS: It is possible to verify that human factors and ergonomic aspects related to the pandemic can be debated in several topics of the analyzed discipline. CONCLUSIONS: Besides presenting the planning of inserting these aspects, this commentary expands the debates on the subject.
Keywords: Coronavirus disease, COVID-19, engineering education, Brazil, human factors, ergonomics
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Quarantine is considered as an effective solution in the early stages of an epidemic. In the case of the coronavirus epidemic, quarantine was also recommended and implemented as a significant guideline to prevent the disease. However, despite the benefits of quarantine, there are also complications and problems. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the health effects of quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was conducted as a literature review through searching the databases Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct for papers published before July 2020. The research was conducted based on the…keywords “Coronavirus,” “COVID-19,” and “quarantine.” The references of the papers were also reviewed to find the ones not found in the databases. The guidelines published by reputable organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used in this study. RESULTS: Although quarantine is applied as an important and primary solution in the outbreak of epidemics, in cases of pandemics, it may not be free of negative effects on individuals and public health. However, because of the need to reopen and restart social and economic activities, some changes should be made in lifestyles and work activities. Using cyberspace and telework can be helpful. As the findings showed, COVID-19 bubbles can be used to restore social communications. CONCLUSION: Using masks, avoiding unnecessary gatherings, complying with personal and social hygiene, and respecting social distancing can be valuable solutions that, if implemented properly, can decrease the rate of the disease significantly. It is also emphasized that quarantine is still necessary and important as the best solution for sick people and individuals who are suspected carriers of the disease.
Keywords: Personal protection equipment, pandemic, social distancing, COVID-19, quarantine, health effects
Abstract: The day my pain specialist told me I would never be pain-free again, I knew my music career was over. I was 21 years old, and had been in constant pain for about two years. I had experienced intermittent jaw pain for about 10 years, but having braces on my teeth, and later having my wisdom teeth removed was supposed to fix it. It did not. The day of my surgery was the last time I had been pain free, even for a second. The years that followed were horrible, and my life was turned upside down.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There has been an insufficient amount of studies that examine how academic working life of researchers can be supported. OBJECTIVE: We examine the use of a nature and art-related activity retreat designed for researchers. The purpose was to evaluate if and how researchers perceived different workshop experiences set in nature as meaningful and important with regards to their self-care. METHODS: A mixed group of six researchers from Sweden, Finland, and the United States met for a three-day retreat consisting of self-selected nature and art-related activities. From data constituted from participant reflections, a focus group interview,…a three months follow-up questionnaire, and an analysis of the workshops undertaken, three major themes were identified: “Sharing and connection”, “Embodiment” and “Nature”. RESULTS: Analysis of the workshop-style exercises did not show significant variance in reported meaningfulness and usefulness related to the activity itself. However, there was a strong correlation between perceived value and shared experience where the sharing of the natural space was felt to put humanity into perspective. CONCLUSION: Organizing and systematizing health preventive retreats for researchers in academia may be an important part of the sustainabile academic community in which the researcher needs to be better taken care of in a more embodied way. Although this study was conducted prior to COVID-19, such retreats and potentially also online versions, could be useful for managing the pandemic and afterwards, in our new “normal”.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: E-learning is increasingly used during the COVID-19 pandemic, however the impact of this change on students is not known. This study aimed to evaluate perception and satisfaction of health sciences students towards E-learning during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was distributed to 2000 health care students either through email or social media platforms. The questionnaire was divided into two sections: the first section addressed demographic information such as age, education level, course of study, number of lectures attended and country. The second section gathered information on perception and satisfaction of students using 13 close-ended questions.…Frequencies and percentages were assessed for demographic data, perception and satisfaction level of students. The paired sample t -test, independent t test and Spearman correlation were applied to evaluate statistical significance between different variables of the study. A p -value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Data from 1255 participants were included at a response rate of 66.4%. More than one third (37%) of the students took 25 or more online E-learning sessions and 47% preferred Zoom as an online platform. Participants belonged to 11 countries from developed and developing nations. 41% reported interference of E-learning due to network problems. 60% considered that clinical and practical skills are best learned in clinics and laboratories. More than one third of the students preferred classroom teaching and 34% of the students did not feel confident enough to take exit exams after E-learning sessions. CONCLUSION: E-learning satisfaction levels were better among developed countries (7.34) compared to developing countries (5.82). The majority of participants agreed that E-learning was satisfactory in acquiring knowledge, however not effective in acquiring clinical and technical skills. As the COVID-19 lockdown eases, there is a need for improvement in the methods employed in E-learning and more blended learning among healthcare students is recommended.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To combat COVID-19, curb the pandemic, and manage containment, governments around the world are turning to data collection and population monitoring for analysis and prediction. The massive data generated through the use of big data and artificial intelligence can play an important role in addressing this unprecedented global health and economic crisis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work is to develop an expert system that combines several solutions to combat COVID-19. The main solution is based on a new developed software called General Guide (GG) application. This expert system allows us to explore, monitor, forecast, and optimize…the data collected in order to take an efficient decision to ensure the safety of citizens, forecast, and slow down the spread’s rate of COVID-19. It will also facilitate countries’ interventions and optimize resources. Moreover, other solutions can be integrated into this expert system, such as the automatic vehicle and passenger sanitizing system equipped with a thermal and smart High Definition (HD) cameras and multi-purpose drones which offer many services. All of these solutions will facilitate lifting COVID-19 restrictions and minimize the impact of this pandemic. METHODS: The methods used in this expert system will assist in designing and analyzing the model based on big data and artificial intelligence (machine learning). This can enhance countries’ abilities and tools in monitoring, combating, and predicting the spread of COVID-19. RESULTS: The results obtained by this prediction process and the use of the above mentioned solutions will help monitor, predict, generate indicators, and make operational decisions to stop the spread of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This developed expert system can assist in stopping the spread of COVID-19 globally and putting the world back to work.
Keywords: Expert system, big data, prediction, artificial intelligence, machine learning, spread of COVID-19, work
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cross-national comparisons of students’ school quality of life (QoL) can support our understanding of factors that may affect students’ health and well-being at school. OBJECTIVE: To compare Canadian and Israeli students’ perception of their school QoL. METHODS: The Quality of Life at School Questionnaire (QoLS) was administered to 1231 students in 4th to 6th grades from Canada (n = 629) and Israel (n = 602), measuring: Physical Environment, Positive Attitudes, Student-Teacher Relationship, and Psychosocial. RESULTS: The Canadian students scored significantly higher than the Israeli students on all domains. The two-way ANOVA did not show a…statistically significant interaction between country and gender nor age. However, within each country, girls and 4th grade students reported higher overall QoLS. CONCLUSIONS: This study lends support for the universal aspects of perceived QoL at school. This information may serve clinicians and educators in setting goals and developing programs to enhance students’ school QOL.
Keywords: Elementary school, school physical environment, occupational therapy, well-being, quality of life
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nurses working in hospitals can suffer from occupational stress due to high workloads and low job and/or personal resources. This can lead to work-related stress, exhaustion, health problems, and low quality of care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of work-related self-care skill training for nurses. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted with 94 nurses in hospital departments in Germany. Nurses were either assigned to the intervention group that received competence training or to a waitlist control group. The intervention took place in groups over a period of 12 weeks.…Training content included i.e. work-related stress management training, problem-solving techniques, and solution-focused counselling. The outcomes studied were changes in work-related stress, emotional exhaustion, emotion regulation, and job satisfaction. Three follow-up assessments were arranged. RESULTS: Nurses in the IG achieved a decrease in perceived job stress and emotional exhaustion as well as improvements with regard to enhanced emotion regulation skills. The intervention was evaluated with high satisfaction scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed first indications that training of mental health self-care skills for junior nurses could be a supportive approach for nurses starting work in hospital departments. However, replication studies are needed to verify the results.
Keywords: Competence, evaluation, health promotion, stress, workplace intervention
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Welding pollutants have potentially dangerous effects on the health of welders. Analysis of exposure risks is an appropriate method for industrial hygiene occupational exposure. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of exposure and risk evaluation of welders to fumes and gases in three common types of welding including Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out at a steel company. Samples were taken from manganese, chromium and nickel fumes with NIOSH 7300 method and for NO, NO2,…CO and O3 gases using direct reading instruments. SQRCA method was used to assess the level of exposure risk. RESULTS: Our study showed that the highest and lowest concentrations of exposure to gases were observed in MIG and GTAW welding, respectively. Also, the highest and lowest concentrations of exposure to metals were observed in SMAW and GTAW processes, respectively. Mean exposure to M, Cr and Ni metals was 2.302, 3.195, and 1.241 mg/m3 , respectively. Also, mean exposure to CO, NO, NO2 and O3 was 43.05, 27.88, 4.30, and 0.41 ppm, respectively. Results of risk analysis showed that O3, NO2 and Cr had high and very high risk levels in all welding processes. CONCLUSIONS: MIG and SMAW welders have a high occupational exposure to metal and toxic gases in welding. Preventive measures such as assessment of workplace air, installation of the ventilation systems, and providing appropriate respiratory protection devices for welders should be taken.