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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: This article discusses how COVID-19 has impacted the American workforce, symptoms of Long COVID syndrome, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, and ways to avoid triggering its symptoms when sanitizing the workplace and using Universal Design practices to increase accessibility and decrease transmission of COVID-19 among workers. Interface with healthcare providers, rehabilitation professionals, and employers is emphasized.
Keywords: COVID-19, long COVID, accessibility, universal design
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic forced companies to make decisions to re-assess working-time and location in order to ensure business survival. The resorting to Smart Working (SW) has been adopted to support business continuity, especially in the banking sector. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at evaluating the attitude and opinions of the bank employees on SW, focusing on the demographic, social and occupational characteristics of the respondents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the attitudes of the banking workers towards SW. The research was conducted from September 2020 to April 2021 through a validated questionnaire…administered online. RESULTS: The workers more interested in SW were younger than 45 years old (p < 0.001), with a high educational level (p = 0.001), and lived > 50 km away from the workplace (p < 0.001). Who reported an improved productivity was aged < 45 years, childless (p < 0.001), not married (p = 0.004). Who thought that working in smart mode has penalized the teamwork was older than 45 years (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.12-1.73), lived near the office (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.16-2.99). CONCLUSIONS: SW could help finding a balance between private and working life, modifying the traditional working activity. However, it could enhance the risk of social isolation, impacting negatively on the working motivation. Establishing good practices on SW could be useful in the short-term to improve the time-management, focus better on work, and prevent possible psychological consequences on banking workers.
Keywords: Observational study, working from home, technostress, work-life balance, wellbeing
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic led to rapid expansion of telehealth services. This was speculated to improve healthcare access among underserved populations, including individuals unable to take time off work or arrange transportation. OBJECTIVE: We completed a quality improvement project to evaluate the feasibility of hybrid consultations that combined televisits and abbreviated in-person visits for neuromuscular referrals. METHODS: Using a censoring date of August 5, 2021, we reviewed all outpatient neuromuscular consultations from August 5, 2020 to February 5, 2021. For both hybrid and traditional in-person consultations, we reviewed no-show rates, completion rates of ordered diagnostic…workup, and billing codes. For hybrid consultations only, we also reviewed intervals between initial televisit and subsequent examination and rates of video-enhanced versus audio-only televisits. RESULTS: During the study period, we completed 153 hybrid and 59 in-person new-patient consultations (no-show rates 9% and 27% respectively.) For hybrid consultations, 77% and 73% of laboratory and imaging studies were completed respectively, compared to 89% and 91% for in-person consultations. For hybrid visits, average RVUs (a marker for reimbursement) per consultation depended on whether audio-only televisits were billed as telephone calls or E/M visits per insurance payer rules, while video-enhanced televisits were uniformly billed as E/M visits. This resulted in average RVUs between 2.09 and 2.26, compared to 2.30 for in-person consultations. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth-based hybrid neuromuscular consultations are feasible with minor caveats. However, the future of telehealth may be restricted by decreasing reimbursement rates particularly for audio-only televisits, limiting its potential to improve healthcare access.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Violence in the work or school environment is becoming a public health problem. Bullying in this scenario is characterized by a set of aggressive, repetitive, intentional behaviors which occur without evident motivation and affects countless young people daily. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify the incidence of bullying cases of elementary and high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic, describing the reasons for this victimization from an emic view; in addition, to compare associated factors such as nutritional status and body image between victims and non-victims of bullying. METHOD: This is a non-probabilistic descriptive design…involving 115 students regularly enrolled in elementary and high school in public schools in the city of Dourados-MS, Brazil. RESULTS: The results indicated an incidence of 20.9% of victims, with verbal aggression (swearing, nicknames, gossip) and social exclusion being the most recurrent. A total of 78.2% of the victim students did not suffer bullying during social distancing, and 87.3% felt safer in their homes. The rate of overweight and obesity was similar between victims and non-victims, similar to the body perception result. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic was a protective barrier in school bullying actions.
Keywords: Bullying, social distancing, COVID-19, pandemic, violence
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Implications of entrepreneurial education (EE), entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and personality traits (PT) on the entrepreneurial intentions of the deaf is yet unknown in existing literature. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of EE, ESE and PT on the entrepreneurial intentions among some 250 Deaf and Hard of hearing (DHH) students from two post-secondary institutions in Oyo state, Nigeria. METHODS: A descriptive research design was adopted, while a structured paper questionnaire was used for data collection. The data generated were analysed using descriptive statistics and the inferential statistics of Pearson Product Moment Correlation and hierarchical multiple regression…at a 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: The entrepreneurial intentions of DHH college students had a significant positive correlation with EE (r = 0.18, p < 0.05), agreeableness (r = 0.23, p < 0.05), and conscientiousness (r = 0.19, p < 0.05); but had a negative correlation with ESE, neuroticism and openness. Furthermore, personality traits and ESE were the highest predictors of entrepreneurial intention among DHH college students. CONCLUSIONS: Personality traits were the greatest predictor of the entrepreneurial intention of DHH college students post the COVID-19 lockdowns in Nigeria. Therefore, higher education institutions should intensify their efforts in entrepreneurial education and parents of DHH students should encourage them to seek entrepreneurial opportunities.
Keywords: COVID-19, deaf and hard of hearing, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, personality traits
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing, with rapidly increasing cases all over the world, and the emerging issue of post COVID-19 (or Long COVID-19) condition is impacting the occupational world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of lasting COVID-19 symptoms or disability on the working population upon their return to employment. METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statements we performed a systematic review in December 2021, screening three databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus), for articles investigating return to work in patients…that were previously hospitalized due to COVID-19. A hand-searched was then performed through the references of the included systematic review. A quality assessment was performed on the included studies. RESULTS: Out of the 263 articles found through the initial search, 11 studies were included in this systematic review. The selected studies were divided based on follow-up time, in two months follow-up, follow-up between two and six months, and six months follow-up. All the studies highlighted an important impact of post COVID-19 condition in returning to work after being hospitalized, with differences based on follow-up time, home Country and mean/median age of the sample considered. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlighted post COVID-19 condition as a rising problem in occupational medicine, with consequences on workers’ quality of life and productivity. The role of occupational physicians could be essential in applying limitations to work duties or hours and facilitating the return to employment in workers with a post COVID-19 condition.
Keywords: Occupational medicine, COVID-19, return to work, employment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Workplace violence (WPV) against health-care professionals has been a concern worldwide as it strains the relationship between the patient and healthcare professionals. Implementing mitigation interventions to help the healthcare professionals to prevent and manage these violent episodes might make the workplaces more secure. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to synthesize the recent evidence on intervention strategies for workplace violence. METHOD: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Wiley, Cochrane and Google Scholar) were searched for peer-reviewed intervention studies published in the last 11 years to mitigate workplace violence. A qualitative synthesis of the findings from included studies was done.…RESULT: A total of 17 studies were identified based on prevention and management of workplace violence. The interventions were mainly educational in nature based on a workshop format. These interventions were found to be effective in improving the perceived ability to deal with situations that lead to violence. CONCLUSION: Strategies to mitigate violent episodes could be helpful to health-care professionals and administrators in their attempts to make safer workplaces in the health-care settings.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although many studies have investigated the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among Indian subjects, no meta-analysis has been conducted to determine the comprehensive epidemiological point, annual, lifetime prevalence of LBP among Indian subjects. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the point, annual, and lifetime prevalence of LBP in the Indian population. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies that reported point, annual, or lifetime prevalence of LBP among Indian subjects. Pooled point, annual and lifetime prevalence rates were calculated. Meta-analysis, subgroup…analysis, sensitivity analysis and publication bias assessment were performed. RESULTS: Ninety-seven studies were included in this review. Fifty-four studies included in the review (55.5%) were found to be of higher methodological quality. The pooled point, annual, and lifetime prevalence of LBP in India was 48% (95% CI 40–56%); 51% (95% CI 45–58%), and 66% (95% CI 56–75%), respectively. The pooled prevalence rates were highest among females, the rural population, and among elementary workers. CONCLUSION: The point, annual, and lifetime prevalence rates of LBP in the Indian population is higher compared to global and other ethnic populations affecting a large proportion of the population, especially among women, rural population and in elementary workers. The findings of this study can be the basis for formulating policy regarding the prevention and treatment of LBP in a large part of the global population.
Keywords: Epidemiology, spine, prevalence, India, low back pain