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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, people volunteered for sewing hand-made face masks. However, sewing-machine operating might be associated with high ergonomic risk and a negative impact on musculoskeletal health. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: This paper describes an ultrasonographic diagnosis of a foot ganglion - after sewing 300 face masks within two months using a foot-operated sewing machine. RESULTS: The patient significantly improved after an ultrasound-guided aspiration and corticosteroid injection. CONCLUSION: In short, we highlight the importance of ultrasound examination in the management of work (overuse)-related disorders in occupational medicine practice.
Abstract: The potential ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic global shut down on physical education providers and youth sport coaches may be particularly severe due to substantial cutbacks on many of their normal activities. This population faces unique challenges in engaging in “virtual learning” given the physical nature of their job, potentially leading to sedentary lifestyle, weight gain, and the development of depressive mood disorders. This commentary aims to explore options to mitigate worsening of stress, depression, physical inactivity, and social disconnection in youth sport coaches following the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and to call attention to…this vulnerable demographic which has been substantially impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: Depression, social activity, physical activity, lifestyle
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The high spread rate of coronaviruses, specifically severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has raised concerns about the spread of the disease in crowded occupational environments. The risk of occupational exposure to coronavirus depends on the type of industry and the nature of work. Currently, most countries are working for reactivating their economies and need to improve working conditions for a safe situation during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed to investigate the current engineering and administrative control measures, which are necessary to protect workers against COVID-19 in workplaces. METHODS: The current…strategies, including engineering control, administrative control, personal protective equipment, and their efficiencies, were reviewed and discussed. RESULTS: Reviewing the literature indicated that a collection of control approaches should be implemented for an effective control of the virus. Control measures could be selected based on the risk of exposure to COVID-19. The results also revealed that relying solely on a specific control measure could not effectively control the outbreak. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, employers and health professionals must continually monitor international and local guidelines to identify changes in recommendations to make their workplaces safer. Establishment of an expert team in any workplace for the implementation of more effective control measures is warranted, as well.
Keywords: Occupational health, engineering controls, ventilation system, PPE, control measures
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection a global pandemic due to the fast transmission of this disease worldwide. To prevent and slow the transmission of this contagious illness, the public health officials of many affected countries scrambled to introduce measures aimed at controlling its spread. As a result, unprecedented interventions/measures, including strict contact tracing, quarantine of entire towns/cities, closing of borders and travel restrictions, have been implemented by most of the affected countries including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to share health care professionals’ perspectives…who are experiencing COVID19 firsthand in a foreign land. In addition, the role of the Saudi governance to combat the current situation is also discussed. DISCUSSION: Personal and previous experiences as related to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) by the authors has been compared to the current situation and how it affected our thoughts and management. A review of the evidence-based literature was conducted to investigate the demographics of the region; and to understand the awareness of the various tools that are available and how they were utilized in the present situation of pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Saudi Arabia has been challenged during the pandemic as are other countries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: As the pandemic process, COVID-19 has a serious occupational safety risk for healthcare professionals. Therefore, determining their health and safety perceptions and attitudes in the pandemic process is very important. This study aims to determine which is more effective in work accident prevention behavior: safety awareness and competencies of healthcare professionals or perception of fatalism. METHOD: For this purpose, a questionnaire was applied to 326 healthcare professionals. The questionnaire consists of four parts: (1) demographic information of the employees, (2) scale of preventing occupational accidents, (3) fatalism perception scale in occupational health and safety, and (4) security…awareness and competency scale. Descriptive statistical methods, multiple regression and correlation analysis were used in the analysis of the data. RESULTS: It was determined that the participants’ safety awareness and competencies were at the high level and their fatalism perceptions were at the low level. The average of the responses given by the participants to the scale of preventing work accidents was above the middle level. According to the study, the safety awareness and competencies of health workers were found to be about three times more effective on the behavior of preventing work accidents than the perception of fatalism. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it is important to recommend managers to take the step to increase the safety awareness and competencies of those working in their institutions.
Keywords: COVID-19, fatalism perception, occupational safety and health, safety awareness and competencies, work accident prevention behavior
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-perceived competency (FSPC) of medical faculty in E-Teaching and support received during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online well-structured and validated faculty self-perceived competency questionnaire was used to collect responses from medical faculty. The questionnaire consisted of four purposely build sections on competence in student engagement, instructional strategy, technical communication and time management. The responses were recorded using a Likert ordinal scale (1–9). The Questionnaire was uploaded at www.surveys.google.com and the link was distributed through social media outlets and e-mails. Descriptive statistics and Independent paired t -test were…used for analysis and comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables. A p -value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 738 responses were assessed. Nearly 54% (397) participants had less than 5 years of teaching experience, 24.7% (182) had 6–10 years and 11.7% (86) had 11–15 years teaching expertise. 75.6% (558) respondents have delivered online lectures during the pandemic. Asynchronous methods were used by 61% (450) and synchronous by 39% (288) of participants. Moreover, 22.4% (165) participants revealed that their online lectures were evaluated by a structured feedback from experts, while 38.3% participants chose that their lectures were not evaluated. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between FSPC scores and online teaching evaluation by experts. The mean score of FSPC scale was 5.62±1.15. The mean score for student’s engagement, instructional strategies, technical communication and time management were of 5.18±1.60, 5.67±1.61, 5.49±1.71 and 6.12±1.67 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Medical faculty members were found somewhat competent in E-teaching for student engagement, instructional strategy, technical communication and time management skills. Faculty receiving feedback was more competent in comparison to peers teaching without feedback.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The public health strategies for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection have included closing the national borders and cancelling international flights, which has severely affected free crew changes. This caused prolonged stay on board or at home for seafarers, who should be recognized as ‘key’ workers regarding their essential role in maintaining the flow of vital goods. OBJECTIVE: Using a general inductive approach, this qualitative study aims to describe how the COVID-19 pandemic reflects on seafarers’ well-being. The study focused on obtaining personal experiences from seafarers on board, and seafarers at home, relating to the current world pandemic.…METHODS: A convenience sample consisting of 752 seafarers from the international seafarers’ population participated in an online study in spring 2020. The questionnaire used included questions relating to basic sociodemographic and work characteristics, and one open question which addressed seafarers’ personal experiences. The data obtained was analysed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: The emerged themes included mental , physical , social and economic well-being . Most of the answers of seafarers located on board related to threatened mental, physical and social well-being, while seafarers at home reported mostly on threats to their economic well-being. CONCLUSION: Seafarers’ well-being is seriously threatened by preventive measures relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results are discussed in relation to earlier findings in the area of occupational stress in seafaring. Overall, the data obtained portrays existing underlying occupational structures in the seafaring sector, which are rendered more visible due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In short, seafarers describe their reality as far away from the concept of ‘key’ or ‘essential’ workers.
Keywords: Qualitative descriptive study, mental, physical, social and economic well-being, occupational stress, seafaring
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In recent years, the elderly population has increasingly worked in various workplaces. Hence, measurements to assess the work attention of the elderly has become an important need. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this research project are to develop an iPad-based attention assessment tool, “Shih-Hsu Test of Attention” (SHTA) for work attention, that adopts touchscreen as the medium interface, and to explore criterion-related validity and test-retest reliability of this new attention assessment tool for elders. METHODS: Thirty-one participants aged between 65–85 years were recruited in this study on a voluntary basis. Each participant was assessed two times.…The participants completed both the SHTA and Chu’s Attention Test (CAT), and the SHTA was used to test participants after three weeks. RESULTS: The analytical results demonstrate that the SHTA has acceptable criterion-related validity (γ= 0.400, p < 0.05* ) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.920, p < 0.01** ). CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary findings show that the iPad-based auditory attention assessment tool, SHTA, has satisfactory criterion-related validity and test-retest reliability, which supports the use of SHTA as an attention assessment tool for older employees.
Keywords: Work attention, criterion-related validity, test-retest reliability
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Returning to work (RTW) is an essential goal for many stroke survivors. Currently, the prevalence of RTW post stroke in developing countries such as Jordan is unknown. Additionally, more research is required to identify factors that contribute to RTW post stroke. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to (1) determine the prevalence of RTW among stroke survivors in Jordan, and (2) determine the predictors of RTW from a holistic perspective using the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF) 3rd edition. METHODS: Recruitment was carried out from different Jordanian hospitals and rehabilitation centers. A complete battery of outcome measures…was used to reflect OTPF domains. These included outcome measures of occupations, client factors, performance skills, and context and environment. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that predicted RTW. RESULTS: 69 participants were enrolled; 45 Males, 24 females; mean age±SD, 52.2±11.07 years. Only 29% succeeded in RTW during the first year after stroke onset. The highest percentage of RTW was among craft workers (40% ), and those who were self-employed (60% ). Of those who resumed work, 35% returned to their previous work, while 65% needed to make work modifications, or change positions or jobs. Factors that predicted higher rates of RTW were walking speed (Odds ratio (OR)=0.004, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.00–0.55, P < 0.02), as well as absence of environmental restrictions (OR = 21.16, 95% CI = 1.91–233.5, P < 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: The alarming low prevalence of RTW among stroke survivors in Jordan emphasizes the essential need to develop vocational rehabilitation programs. Clinicians should pay attention to enhancing walking abilities and reducing environmental restrictions post stroke, in order to improve the occurrence of RTW.