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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The effect in vivo of high and low molecular weight colloids on red cell and platelet aggregation, has been investigated using the SFP method. High molecular weight colloids produce blood cell aggregation and an increase in ADP induced platelet aggregation. Low molecular weight colloids are devoid of such effects. The direct action of high molecular weight colloids, appears to be due to sensitization of the platelets, the effect being made evident by increased red cell or platelet aggregation.
Abstract: The steady flow viscosity of blood and plasma during clotting was measured by a coaxial cylinder viscometer. The relation between the stress and the shear rate during clotting were well represented by Casson’s equation. The dynamic modulus and loss modulus during clotting were also measured by a newly developed dynamic viscoelastic apparatus. Two kinds of equation were proposed to describe the relation between the viscoelastic modulus E ′ or E ″ and the clotting time.
Abstract: In this paper, the Poiseuille flow of blood is studied. Blood is assumed to be a fluid with couple stress. In order to verify that the rheological properties of blood can be explained in terms of the linear couple stress theory, we compare the velocity profiles of theoretical solutions with the ones obtained experimentally. Very good agreement is observed by choosing the appropriate values for the couple stress parameters α ¯ and η ¯ for different concentration factors of erythrocytes. The effects of the concentration factor on the velocity profile…as well as on the values of the velocity are also discussed. We conclude that as far as Poiseuille flow is concerned blood flow characteristics can be explained in terms of the linear couple stress theory.
Abstract: A continuum model of fluid suspensions is applied to the problem of unsteady tube flow of a fluid in which deformations of suspended particles are negligible. An expression is obtained for the volumetric flow rate as a function of suspension concentration. The solution is shown to reduce, as the suspension concentration goes to zero, to the classical solution of Womersley [J. Physiol. 127 , 553, 1955]. Tables are given to allow easy calculation of flow terms for various concentrations.
Abstract: The motion of the plasma trapped between two adjacent red blood cells moving with a constant speed in a capillary blood vessel is studied. In this study, the convective inertia force of the plasma is neglected in comparison with the viscous stresses on the basis of the smallness of the Reynolds number of the flow in the capillary. The red cells are approximated by cylindrical pill boxes whose radii are the same as that of the blood vessel. The capillary blood vessel is approximated by a circular cylindrical tube with impermeable wall. With such an ideal model the velocity and…pressure fields are determined.
vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 109-119, 1969
Abstract: Particle flow in a mechanical model of the mammalian mucociliary system is accounted for by analysis of streamlines, streak lines, and particle path lines. Streamlines were drawn from data obtained by techniques of hot-wire anemometry; multiple streak lines were represented by patterns formed in injected dye; particle path lines were drawn from analysis of films showing the movement of a single dye particle in the flow field. The relationship between the three flow lines is evidenced by the fact that both particle path lines and multiple streak lines could be generated from the streamlines. The relevance of this flow analysis…to the mammalian mucociliary system is indicated by the similarity of the Reynolds numbers for the mechanical and biological systems.
vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 127-135, 1969
Abstract: The absolute viscosity of water and relative viscosity of blood were measured by the transpiration method using 15 viscometers of different radii and lengths. Contrary to a recent investigation, there was no evidence that the viscosity of water is anomalous. The absolute, viscosity of water obtained was within 0.4 per cent of the published value at 38°C. Canine blood, on the other hand displayed a decrease in relative viscosity with decreasing capillary diameter, confirming the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect.
vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 137-142, 1969
Abstract: The concept of “basic equations” is discussed. Maxwell proposed a basic equation for the relaxation of stress in a material depicted as an elastic and a viscous element in series; and Lord Kelvin proposed a similar equation for these elements in parallel. Although some materials obey these equations, their proposers were quite clear that further modifications would be needed for many real systems. The Maxwell equation for relaxation at constant strain and the Kelvin equation for the build-up of strain at constant stress give simple logarithmic relations between two dimensionless ratios, one rheological and the other temporal. Some…years ago, an empirical equation was found to relate the complex modulus of coagulating milk and also blood, to the time following the first signs of coagulation. In the present paper, it is shown that, making the three most probable assumptions about the limits and form of the coagulation curve, this hitherto empirical equation is immediately derived. It shows a striking parallelism with the Maxwell and Kelvin equations. In the latest stages of normal blood coagulation, however, the equation does not hold. This “ceiling effect” is doubtless due to the rapidly increasing shortage of unattached possible junction-points on the long-chain molecules but its quantitative nature is still obscure.
vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 143-150, 1969