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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The rheological properties of synovial fluid (SF) are largely attributed to the presence of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA). However, rheological differences between SF and pure HA solutions suggest that SF proteins actively contribute towards the bulk viscoelasticity of this biological fluid. Due to various experimental challenges involved with the rheometry of low-viscosity biological fluids, the macromolecular interactions in SF and their relative rheological importance are still a matter of active discussion. Interestingly however, recent evidence suggests that the concentration and structure of proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, also known as lubricin) can directly modulate the viscoelastic properties of HA-PRG4 solutions. The…objective of this review is to highlight recent rheological studies that examine the macromolecular interactions between HA and proteins in SF. First, a general overview of the chemical composition of SF and the molecular structure of its key constituents HA and PRG4 is provided. Subsequently, diverse rheological experimental techniques that have been developed to characterize HA solutions are discussed. Finally, rheological investigations of macromolecular interactions between HA, serum proteins, and PRG4 are examined. This review illustrates how diverse rheological techniques can expand our understanding of the composition–structure–function relationships in SF.
Abstract: Background: Biological cells exhibit complex mechanical properties which determine their responses to applied force. Objective: We developed an optical method to probe the temporal evolution of power-law rheology of single cells. Methods: The method consisted in applying optically a constant mechanical torque to a birefringent microparticle bound to the cell membrane, and observing dynamics of the particle’s in-plane rotation. Results: The deformation dynamics of the membrane followed a power law of time, which directly relates to cytoskeletal prestress as reported in the literature. The temporal evolution of this rheological behaviour, over time scales of…several minutes, showed strong variations of the exponent on single adherent cells not subject to any specific treatment. Conclusions: The consistent observation of variations in the exponent suggests that, in their normal activity, living cells modulate their prestress by up to three orders of magnitude within minutes.
Abstract: Background: Devices gauging viscoelastic properties of blood during coagulation like the thromboelastograph support fundamental research as well as point of care needs. Associated fibrinolysis data are based on endogenous species or plasminogen activator added to a homogeneous sample prior to clot formation. Digestion in a monolithic structure differs from the physical situation of thrombolytic therapy where surface reactions dominate. Objective: This study aims to develop rheological testing for heterogeneous phase fibrinolysis. Method: Fibrinolysis rates were determined by phase change of a solid clot induced by autologous plasma/streptokinase (SK) in a rheometer sensitive to viscous damping.…Results: Initial slope or overall change in the logarithmic damping factor indicated fibrinolytic rates. Rates depended on clot geometry, phase volumes, clot composition and SK concentration. Conclusion: The damped oscillation rheometer can be adapted to determine relative rates of heterogeneous fibrinolysis in vitro.
Abstract: Background: Systemic arterial pressure (AP) depends on two physiological variables: cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). The latter depends on vascular hindrance and blood viscosity (BV). However, the relative contributions of the vascular and rheological factors to TPR remain unclear. Objective: The aim of our work was to study the haemodynamic and haemorheologic effects of a treatment course with pentoxifylline (PTX) in SHRs in an effort to assess the impact of the rheological factor on TPR and AP. Methods: The effects of the treatment course with PTX (100 mg/kg/day p.o. for six weeks) on…BV, plasma viscosity, haematocrit, erythrocyte aggregation and deformability, mean AP (MAP), stroke volume (SV), CO, and TPR were studied in SHRs and in control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Results: PTX-treated SHRs had a lower BV, lower erythrocyte aggregation, and higher erythrocyte deformability index compared with the controls. The TPR level was higher by 43% compared with that in WKY rats and did not differ from the values obtained from control SHRs. In SHRs, moderate and strong positive correlations were found between BV and MAP and between BV and TPR. PTX-treated SHRs did not have any significant correlations between the above mentioned parameters. Conclusions: Treatment with PTX attenuated whole blood viscosity, but did not affect the AP and hemodynamic parameters in the experimental SHRs compared with the control SHRs. The magnitude of the rheologic effects of PTX was insufficient to cause appreciable decreases in TPR and AP.
Keywords: Pentoxifylline, SHR, arterial blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, blood viscosity, aortic ring tone
vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 93-107, 2016