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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: A fluid mechanical and electrostatic model for the transport of solute molecules across the vascular endothelial surface glycocalyx layer (EGL) was developed to study the charge effect on the diffusive and convective transport of the solutes. The solute was assumed to be a spherical particle with a constant surface charge density, and the EGL was represented as an array of periodically arranged circular cylinders of like charge, with a constant surface charge density. By combining the fluid mechanical analyses for the flow around a solute suspended in an electrolyte solution and the electrostatic analyses for the free energy of the…interaction between the solute and cylinders based on a mean field theory, we estimated the transport coefficients of the solute across the EGL. Both of diffusive and convective transports are reduced compared to those for an uncharged system, due to the stronger exclusion of the solute that results from the repulsive electrostatic interaction. The model prediction for the reflection coefficient for serum albumin agreed well with experimental observations if the charge density in the EGL is ranged from approximately −10 to −30 mEq/l.
Abstract: Ektacytometry measures the shape of red blood cells under shear stress by analyzing the diffraction pattern of laser light passing through a thin layer of suspended cells. Here we model the diffraction pattern using a combination of Bessel and anomalous scattering functions, and employ a global pattern-fitting technique over nine different shear stresses to determine the separate mechanical properties of normal and non-deformable cells. This technique is capable of yielding the correct elongation index of the normal cells over a range of shear stresses even when they are mixed with as much as 50% non-deformable cells. Additionally, the relative concentrations…of normal and non-deformable cells can be determined.
Keywords: Cell analysis, medical and biological imaging, light scattering
vol. 49, no. 5-6, pp. 317-328, 2012
Abstract: Flow disturbance and reduced blood flow have been associated with higher restenosis rates and clinical adverse events after coronary interventions. In the present study, we sought to investigate flow alterations that occurred after stent implantation in a coronary model, within and adjacent to the stented segment. Two stents (Carbostent, Tetrastent) with different strut design were deployed in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) of a 1:1 scaled silicon coronary model. The model was mounted into an artificial circulation and showed distensibility and rheologic behavior comparable to human coronaries. Flow profiles were assessed using laser-Doppler anemometry. Both stents induced a transitional…flow within the stents, in the jailed branch as well as in the adjacent segments. However, the alterations in flow were less marked using the Carbostent having stents with thinner struts and a larger strut cell area, and thus seem to be more favorable in avoiding bifurcation lesions. This study shows precisely that stent implantation induces flow disturbances in segments known to be prone for restenosis. Investigations using laser-Doppler measurements may enlighten rheologic phenomena inducing restenosis and help in optimizing stent design and deployment techniques.
Abstract: Adhesion of monocytes (U-937 cells) along a silicone tube deployed with circular ring stents was studied to test the hypothesis that by intentionally inducing swirling flow in an endovascular stent, the adhesion of monocytes would be suppressed. The results revealed that under a normal flow condition, the flow disturbance created by the circular ring stents enhanced the adhesion of U-937 cells in the silicone tube. By inducing a swirling flow in the silicone tube, the average wall shear stress (WSS) in the tube with the circular ring stents was elevated and significantly suppressed the adhesion density of U-937 cells to…the surface in the disturbed flow zones to a level equal to that when no stents were deployed in the tube. The results also showed that, due to the attenuation of the swirling flow along the tube, the adhesion density of U-937 cells increased monotonically along the tube, indicating that the adhesion density was negatively correlated with the strength of the swirling flow. Thus, the present study suggests that intentionally introducing swirling flow in an artery deployed with stents may be a solution to solve the problem of stent restenosis by restraining the adhesion of monocytes.
Abstract: Many people are sensitive to cold, resulting in poor blood circulation. There is evidence that hesperidin results in increased peripheral circulation and skin temperature. A transglycosylated hesperidin, α-glucosylhesperidin, is more bioabsorbable than hesperidin. In the present study, biomechanical studies were performed on the effects of long-term feeding of α-glucosylhesperidin on the contractile response (diameter response) and stiffness of femoral arteries excised from rabbits. Animals in the normal (non-treated), low, and high groups were fed 0, 150 and 4500 mg/day, respectively, of α-glucosylhesperidin for about 24 weeks. The feeding of α-glucosylhesperidin did not change arterial stiffness nor mean blood flow rate…in the femoral artery; however, it increased mean aortic blood pressure and decreased arterial diameter at 100 mmHg in the high group. The diameter responses developed by 10−5 M of norepinephrine were significantly lower in the high and low groups than in non-treated group. This result indicates that, due to the long-term feeding of α-glucosylhesperidin, arterial contraction induced by the neurotransmitter of sympathetic nerves decreases. It was estimated that blood flow in such muscular arteries as the femoral artery is maintained at normal by α-glucosylhesperidin even under the conditions of autonomic imbalance and cold intolerance.
Abstract: One drawback of in vitro cell culturing is the dedifferentiation process that cells experience. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) also change molecularly and morphologically with long term culture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if culture passages interfere in vascular SMC mechanical behavior. SMC were obtained from five different porcine arterial beds. Optical magnetic twisting cytometry (OMTC) was used to characterize mechanically vascular SMC from different cultures in distinct passages and confocal microscopy/western blotting, to evaluate cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins. We found that vascular SMC rigidity or viscoelastic complex modulus (G) decreases with progression of passages. A…statistically significant negative correlation between G and passage was found in four of our five cultures studied. Phalloidin-stained SMC from higher passages exhibited lower mean signal intensity per cell (confocal microscopy) and quantitative western blotting analysis showed a decrease in collagen I content throughout passages. We concluded that vascular SMC progressively lose their stiffness with serial culture passaging. Thus, limiting the number of passages is essential for any experiment measuring viscoelastic properties of SMC in culture.
Abstract: Objective: To identify and analyze the important factors which could influence the Dynamic Stiffness Index (DSI) of compression bandages. Methods: Using three commercially available bandages with different stiffnesses, their DSI was obtained using a prototype based on an artificial leg-segment model consisting of a wooden mannequin having a variable circumference. The effect on DSI of three major factors, bandage extensibility (ε), resting pressure (RP) and limb circumference (C) was studied. An N-way ANOVA for a fixed model was carried out to test the significance of the above major factors and their interaction effects on bandage DSI. Results: There…were significant differences (p<0.05) between the mean DSI observed at different values of ε, RP and C. It was also found that some of the factors, ε and RP, and C and RP, interfere with each other and that their interaction effects also significantly affected the DSI (p<0.05). Conclusion: The above major factors have a deciding influence on the DSI of the compression bandages. Understanding the influence of these factors and the effect of their interactions on the DSI could help in pre-evaluating and comparing dynamic behaviors of different compression bandages during compression management.