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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Understanding the mechanical properties of human liver is one of the most critical aspects of its numerical modeling for medical applications or impact biomechanics. Generally, model constitutive laws come from in vitro data. However, the elastic properties of liver may change significantly after death and with time. Furthermore, in vitro liver elastic properties reported in the literature have often not been compared quantitatively with in vivo liver mechanical properties on the same organ. In this study, both steps are investigated on porcine liver. The elastic property of the porcine liver, given by the shear modulus G, was measured by both…Transient Elastography (TE) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Shear modulus measurements were realized on in vivo and in vitro liver to compare the TE and DMA methods and to study the influence of testing conditions on the liver viscoelastic properties. In vitro results show that elastic properties obtained by TE and DMA are in agreement. Liver tissue in the frequency range from 0.1 to 4 Hz can be modeled by a two-mode relaxation model. Furthermore, results show that the liver is homogeneous, isotropic and more elastic than viscous. Finally, it is shown in this study that viscoelastic properties obtained by TE and DMA change significantly with post mortem time and with the boundary conditions.
Abstract: Bone marrow is the niche for stem cells and is within close proximity to bone lining cells. Forces experienced by these cells guide their differentiation and proliferation. As these forces are dependent on the viscosity of the medium, the knowledge about the viscosity of marrow is essential to modeling the mechanical environment of bone. This study sought to examine the effects of age on the rheological properties of human yellow bone marrow. Samples were harvested from the femurs of male donors ranging from 22 to 82 years of age (N=19) and subjected to stress and frequency sweeps to determine viscosity…and dynamic moduli, respectively. The viscosity of bone marrow at physiologically plausible shear rates ranged from 44 to 142 mPa · s. The coefficients of variation ranged up to 0.40 within subjects and 0.14 between subjects. Regressions of viscosity values against age did not generate a strong level of significance; therefore, earlier reported changes in the composition of marrow with age did not translate into variation in viscosity of marrow. Since age does not seem to offer a governing effect, the observed variation within and between donors may stem from other factors (genetic, nutrition, etc.). The wide range of variation in the viscosity of marrow within subject, between subjects and with age implies that the fluid shear experienced by cells resident in marrow may also vary substantially.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of stenosis geometry on primary thrombogenesis with respect to the dynamics of the blood flow. A two-dimensional computer simulation was carried out to simulate the formation of a primary thrombus under blood flow in two geometrically different blood vessels: one straight and the other stenosed. In the simulation, blood was modeled by particles that have characteristics of plasma and of platelets. Plasma and platelet flow was analyzed using the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, while the motion of adhered and aggregated platelets was expressed by mechanical spring forces. With these…models, platelet motion in the flowing blood and platelet aggregation and adhesion were successfully coupled with viscous blood flow. The results of the simulation demonstrated that the presence of a stenosis induced changes in blood flow and thereby altered the formation, growth, and destruction of a thrombus. In particular, whereas in the absence of stenosis, the thrombus evenly covered the injured site, in the presence of a stenosis, thrombus formation was skewed to the downstream side. The number of platelets that adhered to the injured site increased earlier as the stenosis became more severe. These results suggest that dynamic changes in blood flow due to the presence of a stenosis affect primary thrombogenesis.
Abstract: The effect of low and high viscosity hemodilution with plasma expanders on the extent of the cell free layer (CFL) width was analyzed in the microcirculation of the exteriorized cremaster muscle preparation of Sprague–Dawley male rats. Anesthetized animals were subjected to 40% hemodilution by blood volume, using 5% human serum albumin (HSA) or 6% Hetastarch (hydroxyethyl starch 670 kDa). Arterioles (n=5 for each treatment) were investigated. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, vessel flow velocity and CFL width were measured at baseline and 5, 20 and 40 min post-exchange transfusion. Blood and plasma viscosity was determined from terminal blood collections. CFL…width and pseudoshear rate, diameter and flow, normalized to baseline, were significantly elevated at all post-exchange assessments. Peripheral vascular resistance decreased. The increase of the CFL width was greater with HSA by comparison with Hetastarch hemodilution (p<0.05). Hetastarch blood and plasma viscosities increased significantly compared to those of HSA (p<0.05). This study shows that CFL widths are influenced by plasma expander viscosity, a phenomenon proportional to the increase in molecular weight of the colloids in solution.
Abstract: This paper reports on a theoretical examination of the hypothesis that red blood cell network characteristics influence the mechanical properties of the fluid. For this purpose a newly developed energy-rate based blood viscosity model, which incorporates network dynamics, was used to predict the transient behaviour of blood viscosity (steady-state results of this model have been reported in Biorheology 46 (2009), 487–508). The main network characteristic examined in the present work was the inter-aggregate branch size and its relationship to the evolving aggregates. Branch size was used to define a network integrity index that accounted for the strength of the developed…network. For the development and validation of the model, experiments performed with an optical shearing microscope, with different step-changes in shear rate, were utilised, as well as viscosity measurements under similar flow conditions performed in a double wall Couette instrument. The experimental data were compared with the response of the model, which incorporated the network integrity index. The results suggest that network characteristics may influence the viscosity of blood at low shear rates and exhibit good agreement with experimental observations.