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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The red blood cell apparent-size spectrum, obtained using resistive pulse spectroscopy (RPS) with typical electrical response times, is characterized by a bimodality, which in turn is quantified by a bimodality index. The magnitude of the index reflects the non-uniformity in distribution of particle trajectories within the orifice, itself a function of cell deformability. In measurements of mixed populations of glutaraldehyde-fixed and native cells, the index is found to be linearly dependent on the fraction of deformable cells. The index, previously known to be a function of flow rate, is now found to be a function of the electric field…strength within the orifice as well. Furthermore a previously reported time-dependent loss of bimodality, for the uncounted cells remaining in a counting-vial suspension, appears to be a function of the electric field strength far outside the orifice. The relationship between the pressure drop across the orifice and the average linear fluid velocity through the orifice has been measured, and it is concluded that the flow within the orifice is non-turbulent, at all but the highest flow rates. The non-turbulent flow condition, coupled with the short resident time within the orifice, implies that the observed selection of different trajectories (as a function of cell deformability) must take place well in front of the orifice.
Abstract: The expression for the sedimentation rate in inclined tubes given by Nakamura et al (Nakamura, H. and Kuroda, K. Keijo J. Med. 8, 256–296, 1937) is improved to be applicable to the problem that the falling velocity of a particle from the top wall of the tube v ′ differs from the one from the interface between the particle free layer and the suspended layer v . The effects of the shape at the bottom of the tube and the increase in height of the layer closely packed with particles are taken into account.
Abstract: An acinus is the principal secretion unit of an exocrine gland. This paper sets up a mathematical model of an acinus and examines the effect on the output of varying the operating parameters, both of the secretion mechanism and the fluid properties. Particular reference is made to acini of the pancreas. The question of whether the effects of cystic fibrosis on the pancreas can be attributed to the increased viscosity of the exudate is also considered. The work identifies key parameters, and their quantitative ranges, which would need to be examined experimentally in order to resolve this question.
Abstract: A theoretical and experimental study concerning two-component fluid pulsating flow through cylindrical ducts having a slight constriction is presented. The model corresponds to blood flows through small diameter vessels (smaller than 400 μ m) affected by a singular stenosis. The theoretical approach is based on a asymptotical expansion of the stream function. The physical hypotheses used were based on findings from simultaneous visualization methods. The influence of geometrical, hydrodynamical and structural parameters is systematically examined and related to velocity profiles, hydrostatic pressure, surface stresses.
Keywords: Hemodynamics, microcirculation, plasmatic layers, stenosis, hematocrit rate, Taylor law
Abstract: The rheology of blood is characterized by shear thinning, viscoelasticity, and thixotropy. Its rheological evaluation is usually accomplished using a torque balance technique during rotational viscometry. Because a stable torque balance does not develop instantly, studies of thixotropy and viscoelasticity of blood have usually been carried out only at low shear rate where their development is slow enough to be monitored accurately. The torque balance technique may be converted from static to dynamic by incorporating the rate of change of sensing system angular momentum. We have modified our Couette viscometer, adding a computer-controlled stepping motor and a second digital voltmeter.…The latter is used to determine the angular position of the sensing system every 25 or 50 msec. The new approach allows rapid observation of the development and disappearance of shear stress, enabling us to examine the transient behavior of blood at moderate shear rate (1 to 100 inverse seconds). The transient flow behavior of blood at moderate shear rate is most easily compared directly with the behavior of Newtonian fluids. We present information about the response of our system using a torque balance observation rate of 20 per second. Blood’s viscoelasticity is observed to fall substantially as shear rate rises, while its thixotropic transient excess stress rises steadily with increasing shear rate.
Abstract: To discuss the relaxation phenomena of bioligical cell suspensions, we calculate the complex intrinsic viscosity of dispersions of spherical cells with viscoelastic membrane as a function of the frequency taking account of interfacial tension at both the interfaces of the membrane. The Maxwell model and two kinds of the three- parameter models are used to describe the viscoelasticity of the cell membrane. The results are computed mainly for the Maxwell model similarly in case of the Voigt Model (Abe, K., Takano, Y. and Sakanishi, A. Biorheology 21 405-414, 1984). The computed results of the four models, the Voigt, the Maxwell…and the two kinds of the three-parameter viscoelastic models, are compared with the experimental data.