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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Flow instability has been observed in the plasma and in the blood of low haematocrit studied in the rotational rhombospheroid viscometer. As this observation is relevant, and fundamental, to all cone-in-cone and cone-and-plate viscometers, a detailed experimental series was carried out using a range of standard oils of different viscosities as well as blood of different haematocrits. The main attention was given to a shear rate of 180 sec−1 , corresponding to 250 r.p.m. at angular gap of 5° (although a 10° gap has been also used). Linear regressions have been established for flow instability (given as percentage increase of the apparent…viscosity). The linear regression for Newtonian oils was: y = −0.1258x + 1.962 ± 0.133, (r = −0.981); and for blood: y = −0.354x + 2.002 ± 0.116, (r = −0.983), in which y represents log of percentage increase of viscosity due to instability, and x is viscosity in cP or mPas.s. Flow instability occurs at higher shear rates in blood than in Newtonian oils; this is attributed to the pseudoplasticity (or shear-thinning or thixotropy) of blood. Both regressions merge at viscosity of under 1 cP, and spread apart as viscosities increase.
Abstract: Two kinetic models of the calcium-ATP-actomyosin interaction in muscle tissue are developed. The assumptions made in this work are based firmly on the experimental data available in the literature. Using these models, the rate equations for hydrolysis and formation of activated actomyosin complex are found. An important result is that rate of change of concentrations for all species in this complex set of biochemical reactions can be expressed in terms of two species rate equations. The remaining concentrations are related to these through equilibrium and species continuity (mass conservation) relations. In Part II, these models are used to develop general…thermodynamic constitutive models for striated muscle.
Abstract: Using the kinetic models developed in Part I, a set of general continuum thermodynamic constitutive equations of the internal state variable type are proposed for striated muscle tissue and analyzed. Restrictions put on the arguments of the stress tensor, heat flux vector, free energy and reaction rate expressions are deduced using general arguments of tensor invariance, material symmetry and the entropy inequality. Comparison for the special case of one dimensional linearized irreversible thermodynamic analysis is made with results of previous workers.
Abstract: In this paper, the Poiseuille flow of couple stress fluid has been critically examined. It is shown that the method used for comparing the theoretical and experimental results is erroneous and the values of the couple stress parameters obtained for blood flow are incorrect. The existing method for determining the couple stress parameters has been improved. The computational work in the improved method is considerably less. It is observed that both the couple stress parameters are functions of concentration c and an empirical relation between concentration, α ¯ and η ¯…has been obtained. It is of interest to note that the shear viscosity μ and non-dimensional axial velocity are functions of concentration. This is in contrast with the existing result, i.e., μ is independent of c and non-dimensional axial velocity is insensitive of c(α ¯ ). Finally, some uses of determining the values of α ¯ and η ¯ have been suggested.
Abstract: The present problem deals with a two-fluid model for blood flow through narrow tubes. The model basically consists of a core (substructured continuum) and a peripheral layer of plasma (Newtonian fluid). A new boundary condition has been introduced which takes into account a more realistic situation, that is, non-zero couple stresses at the interface. Analytical expressions have been obtained for axial velocity relative particle spin flow rate and apparent viscosity. A critical study of other theoretical models and their comparison with the present model has been presented. Further, the results of the present model are in reasonably good agreement with…the experimental observations. It is of interest to note that the present model can be used to explain Segre-Silberberg effect, Fahraeus-Lindquist effect and blunting of velocity profiles whereas most of the other models can explain only one or two of these anomalies.
Abstract: The concentration profile of erythrocytes during sedimentation is predicted by using equations for two-phase flow. The equations model the buoyant force on the cells, the drag due to the relative motion of the cells and the plasma, and the diffusive force on the cells due to their Brownian motion. The equations are solved by the method of finite differences and the results are compared to the experimental data of Whelan, Huang, and Copley. The results indicate that a theory of this type can accurately predict the measured concentration profiles. However, in order to do so, an anomalously large value of…the diffusivity coefficient must be used.