Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 29, issue 3
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: During the last two decades, biodegradable/absorbable materials which have many benefits over conventional implants are being sought in clinical practices. However, to date, it still remains obscure for us to perform full physic-chemical characterization and biological risk assessment for these materials and related devices due to their complex design and coherent processing. In this review, based on the art of knowledge for biodegradable/absorbable materials and biological risk assessment, we demonstrated some promising strategies to establish and improve the current biological evaluation systems for these biodegradable/absorbable materials and related medical devices.
Keywords: Biodegradable/absorbable materials, medical device, biological evaluation
Abstract: Fibrinogen plays a necessary role in blood clotting and wound healing. In this study, a new solvent mixture of formic acid/acetic acid with low toxicity was investigated as an alternative solvent for fibrinogen electrospinning. The nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The results showed that when the ratio of formic acid to acetic acid was 75/25 (v/v) the finest defect-free fibres with diameters ranging from 184 ± 37 to 241 ± 70 nm were obtained. In addition, the average fibre diameters increase with increasing concentration of fibrinogen from…10wt% to 12wt%. It is concluded that solvent mixture consisting of formic acid/acetic acid can be a great solvent for electrospinning of fibrinogen and is able to produce nanofiber structures.
Abstract: Background: Isometric cervical flexor system exercise (ICF) and isometric cervical extensor system exercise (ICE) are cervical stabilization techniques that have been used to restore cervical crossed syndrome (CCS)-associated forward head posture. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying motor control mechanisms remain elusive. Purpose: The purpose of present study was investigating the concurrent therapeutic effects of ICF and ICE on muscle size, muscle imbalance ratio, and muscle recruitment sequence using ultrasound imaging and electromyography. Methods: A total of 18 participants (7 females; age = 24 ± 4.0 years) with CCS associated with forward head…posture underwent ICF and ICE. Paired t -test analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: Paired t -test analysis showed that sternocleidomastoid thickness was greater during ICF than ICE. Similarly, cross-sectional area and horizontal thickness of the longus colli were greater during ICE than ICF. The upper trapezius/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio and the pectoralis major/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio were significantly decreased during the application of ICE compared to ICF. Conclusions: These results provide compelling, mechanistic evidence as to how ICE is more beneficial for the restoration of neuromuscular imbalance than ICF in individuals with CCS.
Keywords: Forward head posture, motor control, muscle imbalance, rehabilitation
Abstract: The selection of stent and balloon type is decisive in the stenting process. In the treatment of an eccentric plaque obstruction, a symmetric expansion from stent dilatation generates nonuniform stress distribution, which may aggravate fibrous cap prone to rupture. This paper developed a new stent design to treat eccentric plaque using structural transient dynamic analysis in ANSYS. A non-symmetric structural geometry of stent is generated to obtain reasonable stress distribution safe for the arterial layer surrounding the stent. To derive the novel structural geometry, a Sinusoidal stent type is modified by varying struts length and width, adding bridges, and varying…curvature width of struts. An end ring of stent struts was also modified to eliminate dogboning phenomenon and to reduce the Ectropion angle. Two balloon types were used to deploy the stent, an ordinary cylindrical and offset balloon. Positive modification results were used to construct the final non-symmetric stent design, called an Asymmetric stent. Analyses of the deformation characteristics, changes in surface roughness and induced stresses within intact arterial layer were subsequently examined. Interaction between the stent and vessel wall was implemented by means of changes in surface roughness and stress distribution analyses. The Palmaz and the Sinusoidal stent were used for a comparative study. This study indicated that the Asymmetric stent types reduced the central radial recoiling and the dogboning phenomenon. In terms of changes in surface roughness and induced stresses, the Asymmetric stent has a comparable effect with that of the Sinusoidal stent. In addition, it could enhance the distribution of surface roughening as expanded by an offset balloon.
Keywords: Balloon expandable stent, asymmetric, eccentricity, carotid artery stenting, FEM
Abstract: The current study investigates the curvature effect due to various angles of curvature on the blood flow in human artery. The stenosis is considered to have three sizes 70%, 80% and 90% blockage before the curve section of artery. Numerical study of four different angle of curvature was considered to understand the flow behavior of artery having various curvatures, on the hemodynamics factors that includes drop in arterial pressure, flow velocity as well as wall shear stress. It was found that, the augmentation of the flow resistance due to the curvature increases in presence of stenosis. It was also noted…that the wall shear is higher at the outer wall as compared to the inside wall in four models considered. Results showed that both the curvature of artery and size of the stenosis have significant impact. These two factors should be considered by cardiologist to assess the complexity of stenosis.
Abstract: Nanosuspensions technique is an important tool to enhance the saturation solubility and dissolution velocity of poorly soluble drugs. Trans-resveratrol (t-Res) with extensive pharmacological effects was severely restricted by poor solubility and short biological half-life. In this study, anti-solvent precipitation was employed to development trans-resveratrol nanosuspensions (t-Res NS) with PVPK30 as stabilizer. The physicochemical properties, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetics of t-Res NS were investigated. The mean particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of t-Res NS prepared by the optimal prescription were 96.9 nm, −20.4mV, 78% and 28.1%, respectively. The morphology of t-Res nanoparticles…was spherical indicated by SEM with amorphous phase verified by XRD and DSC. The t-Res NS present a good physical stability as well as enhanced chemical stability. Compared to crude drug, the in vitro dissolution rate of t-Res NS was increased with fitting Higuchi equation (Q = 0.3215 t 1 / 2 + 0.0070 ). The in vivo pharmacokinetic test in rats showed that the AUC 0 ∼ t of t-Res NS (559.4 μ g/mL·min) was about 3.6-fold higher than that of t-Res solution. Meanwhile, the MRT of t-Res nanosuspensions was longer than that of t-Res solution. These results suggested that NS may be a potentially nanocarrier for clinical delivery of t-Res.
Keywords: Nanosuspensions, trans-resveratrol, anti-solvent precipitation, in vitro dissolution, in vivo pharmacokinetics
Abstract: Background: Novel pectin-honey hydrogels have been developed and characterized as medical device. Ideally, a wound dressing should maintain optimal fluid affinity, permit moisture evaporation, protect the wound from microbes, and have shape-conformability, biocompatibility, and antibacterial activity. Objective: A novel, simple and fast method to produce pectin-honey wound dressings is described. Methods: The properties of these pectin-honey hydrogels were investigated, including swelling ability, water vapour transmission rate, hydrogen peroxide production, methylglyoxal content and antibacterial activity. Biocompatibility was assessed by proliferation assays using cultured fibroblast cells and by in vivo study with subcutaneous and intraperitoneal implantation in…rats. Results: Hydrogel showed a good water vapour transmission rate, fluid uptake and were not cytotoxic for fibroblasts. The hydrogel demonstrated good antibacterial activity toward clinically relevant pathogens, including S. aureus and E. coli . Biocompatibility was confirmed by the measurement of plasma levels of interleukin (IL)1 beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and prostaglandin (PG)E2. No histological changes were observed. Conclusions: The presence of a natural active component, conformability, and complete resorbability are the main characteristics of this new biocompatible biomaterial that is well tolerated by the body, possibly improves healing, may be used for surgical complications prevention, with a simple and inexpensive production process.
Keywords: Biocompatibility, biomaterial, pectin-honey hydrogels, wound dressing, medical device
Abstract: Background: Circle of Willis (COW) is a network of cerebral artery which continually supplies the brain with blood. Any disturbance in this supply will result in trauma or even death. One of these damages is known as brain Aneurysm. Clinical methods for diagnosing aneurysm can only measure blood velocity; while, in order to understand the causes of these occurrences it is necessary to have information about the amount of pressure and wall shear stress, which is possible through computational models. Objective: In this study purpose is achieving exact information of hemodynamic blood flow in COW with an aneurysm…and investigation of effective factors on growth and rupture of aneurysm. Methods: Here, realistic three-dimensional models have been produced from angiography images. Considering fluid-structure interaction have been simulated by the ANSYS.CFX software. Results: Hemodynamic Studying of the COW and intra-aneurysm showed that the WSS and wall tension in the neck of aneurysms for case A are 129.5 Pa, and 12.2 kPa and for case B they are 53.3 Pa and 56.2 kPa, and more than their fundus, thus neck of aneurysm is prone to rupture. Conclusion: This study showed that the distribution of parameters was dependent on the geometry of the COW, and maximum values are seen in areas prone to aneurysm formation.
Keywords: Aneurysm, Circle of Willis, computational fluid dynamic, fluid-structure interaction
Abstract: Introduction: The biological and mechanical properties of substances are relevant to their application as biomaterials and there are many efforts to enhance biocompatibility and mechanical properties of bio-medical materials. Objectives: In this study, to achieve a low rate of shrinkage during polymerization, good mechanical properties, and excellent biocompatibility, benzoxazine based composites were synthesized. Methods: Benzoxazine monomer was synthesized using a solventless method. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to determine the appropriate polymerization temperature. The low viscosity of the benzoxazine monomer at 70°C attract us to use in situ polymerization after high speed ball milling…of the benzoxazine and it mixture with different weight fractions of zirconia particles. Dispersion and adhesion between the ceramic and polymer components were evaluate by SEM. To evaluate the biological properties and toxicity of the polybenzoxazine-based composite samples reinforced with zirconia particles, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was conducted. The micromechanical properties of each composite were evaluated by more than 20 nanoindentation tests and 3 nanoscratching tests. Surface topography of scratched regions was investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy. Shrinkage was simulated by Materials Studio software. Results: SEM images showed good dispersion and adhesion between the ceramic and polymer components. Biocompatibility assay showed excellent in vitro biocompatibility. Nano-indentation force-displacement curves showed matrix, reinforcement and interphase regions in specimens and excellent homogeneity in mechanical properties. The nanoindentation results showed that the addition of zirconia particles to the polybenzoxazine matrix increased the modulus and hardness of the neat polybenzoxazine; however, by adding more than an optimum level of reinforcement particles, the mechanical properties decreased due to the agglomeration of reinforcement particles and weak interphase that cause inappropriate load transferring between matrix and reinforcement particles. Results of nano-scratching tests showed effects of zirconia particles as reinforcement on the coeffiecient of friction of the synthesized composites. Shrinkage simulation showed a low rate of shrinkage for polybenzoxazine in comparison with other low shrinkage polymers, such as Bis-GMA. Conclusion: Polybenzoxazine based composites that reinforced with an optimum amount of zirconia particles (60% wt micro and 10% wt nano-particles) could be used as a novel biomaterial duo to its excellent biocompatibility, good mechanical properties, appropriate viscosity and low rate of polymeization shrinkage.
Abstract: Background: The data on biomaterial-mediated bone regeneration directly comparing commercially available scaffolds in aging and osteoporotic conditions remain sparse. Objective: To investigate the effects of an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) and a medical grade polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (mPCL-TCP) scaffold on calvarial defect healing in ovary-intact and ovariectomized rats. Methods: Forty-two, 5-month old female Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into sham (OVI) or ovariectomy (OVX) groups (n = 21 ). When rats reached 6 months old, 7 mm diameter calvarial defects were created and treated, further dividing each group into blood clot control, mPCL-TCP, or ACS subgroups (n…= 7 ). After four weeks, the calvarial specimens were evaluated using micro-computed tomography for bone volume fraction (BVF), and histopathology. Results: The effects of ovariectomy were confirmed by changes in body, uterine, and vaginal weight, and osteopenia in the femur. A significant increase in BVF was observed in ACS-subgroups compared with their respective control groups (p < 0.05 ). Histopathological analysis revealed no cellular inflammatory infiltrate in any group. Fibrous tissue encapsulated the mPCL-TCP, while the ACS was well-integrated with the bone matrix. The OVX groups presented more osteoid and enlarged marrow cavities compared with the OVI groups. Conclusion: ACS scaffold enhanced calvarial bone regeneration in OVI and OVX rats after four weeks.
Keywords: Polycaprolactone, collagen, bone regeneration, ovariectomy, microcomputed tomography