Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: During gait, healthy knee coronal kinematics of each bony axis and lower extremity alignment are important because they could be useful as reference data for several surgeries and provide clarification of the etiology of diseases around the knee in healthy participants; however, it remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to clarify the kinematics of lower extremity alignment and the bony axes relative to the ground during gait, focused on the coronal plane, in healthy individuals by applying our unique three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. METHODS: The study included 21 healthy individuals, including 9…healthy females and 12 healthy males with an average age of 36 ± 17 years. Knee kinematics were calculated in a gait analysis by combining the data from a motion-capture system and a 3D lower-extremity alignment assessment system on biplanar long-leg radiographs by using a 3D-2D registration technique. The main kinematic parameters were the dynamic position change relative to the ground, applying the femoral anatomical axis (FAA), tibial anatomical axis (TAA), and dynamic alignment in the coronal plane during the stance phase of gait. RESULTS: The average changes in FAA, TAA, and dynamic varus alignment were 3.7° ± 1.2°, 3.5° ± 0.8°, and 3.0° ± 1.2°, respectively. The TAA tilted laterally during the loading response and a plateau area appeared afterwards; the FAA gradually inclined laterally until the terminal stance phase, and the dynamic alignment showed varus angular change during the loading response. CONCLUSIONS: The tibia and femur were found to change approximately 2–5° of the position of the bony axes relative to the ground. In terms of clinical relevance, our findings can be used to clarify the etiology of diseases around the knee joint and as reference data for surgeries.
Keywords: Normal knee kinematics, gait analysis, bony axis, dynamic alignment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies offer potential for bone repair. MSC spheroid cultures may harbor enhanced therapeutic potential over MSC monolayers through increased secretion of trophic factors. However, the impact of spheroid size on trophic factor expression is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of spheroid size on trophic factor-related gene expression. METHODS: KUM10, a murine MSC line was used. RNA-seq was used to screen the transcriptional profiles of MSC monolayer and spheroid cultures. Differentially expressed genes identified in RNA-seq were evaluated by q-PCR in cultures of 5 × 104 (S group), 5 × 105…(M group), 5 × 106 (L group) cells/well. RESULTS: Comparison of expression levels between KUM10 monolayer and spheroid cultures identified 2140 differentially expressed genes, of which 1047 were upregulated and 1093 were downregulated in KUM10 spheroids. Among these, 12 upregulated genes (Bmp2 , Fgf9 , Fgf18 , Ngf , Pdgfa , Pdgfb , Tgfb1 , Vegfa , Vegfc , Wnt4 , Wnt5a , Wnt10a ) were associated with secretory growth factors. Of these, expression of Fgf9 , Fgf18 , Vegfa and Vegfc was elevated in the L group, and Pdgfb and Tgfb1 was elevated in the S group. CONCLUSIONS: Spheroid size may impact trophic factor expression. Our results will be useful for future studies assessing the utility of MSC spheroids for treating bone injury.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Most orthodontic cases consist of varying degrees of crowding. To manage crowded dentitions, nickel-titanium archwires with various ligation methods are often used. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of different ligation methods with respect to force and moment and suggest the efficient ligation method for treating rotation and displacement simultaneously. METHODS: We built a model that simulated the three anterior teeth of the maxilla. The teeth on the two ends were fixed, and the middle tooth was set in several different positions by manipulating the amount of displacement in bucco-lingual direction and rotation angle.…The measurements were taken with three different ligation methods of self-ligation (SL), elastomeric o-ring ligation on both side wings (EB), and on one side wings (EO). RESULTS: The magnitude of linguo-buccal force exceeded the standard optimal force in each condition examined and was significantly larger in EB than in other ligation methods. Moreover, the magnitude of moment generation with SL was suitable in the 0.0 mm linguo-version, whereas it was suitable with EO in the linguo-version ranging 1.0–3.0 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The ligation method significantly affected the force and moment. SL and EO are recommended in dentitions with light and deep lingual displacements, respectively.
Keywords: Six-axis sensor, orthodontics, force system, moment, orthodontic simulator
Abstract: BACKGROUND: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a high value-added platform compound which can be obtained by dehydration of hexose under acidic conditions. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, a novel impregnation strategy for the molecular sieves (ZSM-5) as carrier and phosphotungstic acid (TPA) as active ingredient is proposed, the influence of the fructose dehydration process were studied and eco-friendliness, low-cost 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) was successfully obtained. METHOD: The structure surface area, pore size, acidity and microstructure of solid acid catalysts were investigated by XRD, BET, NH3 -TPD and SEM. The influences of reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst dosage on the yield…of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HFM) were investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that TPA/ZSM-5 (mass ratio 20:10) has good dispersion and catalytic activity, fructose dosage 5 g, reaction temperature 140 °C, reaction time 2 h, catalyst dosage 0.5 g, and the yield of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was 80.75% and after five times use the yield of 5-HMF remained above 75%. CONCLUSION:
Abstract: BACKGROUND: With the increasing aging of population, the incidence rate of diseases such as fracture and osteoporosis has been increasing. The demand for implant in Department of orthopedics has increased. The elastic modulus of the existing solid metal implant is much higher than that of human bone tissue, and it is easy to produce stress shielding effect after operation, which causes complications such as loosening of prosthesis and low fusion efficiency. OBJECTIVE: In order to solve the mismatch of elastic modulus between solid metal orthopedic implants and human bone tissue, metal structures with excellent mechanical properties were prepared.…METHODS: The porous structure was designed by spatial dot matrix method, and the metal porous structure was prepared based on selective laser melting 3D printing technology. The residual stress in the preparation process was eliminated by vacuum annealing heat treatment, and the static compression experiment was carried out to study the effects of different pore shape and porosity parameters on the compressive yield strength and elastic modulus of porous structure. The performance changes of porous structure before and after heat treatment were compared, and the porous structure meeting the performance requirements of human bone tissue was selected. RESULTS: The porous structure prepared by selective laser melting technology met the requirements of human bone tissue. The elastic modulus was as low as 0.74 GPa and the compressive yield strength is 201.91 MPa; After annealing heat treatment, the compressive yield strength of porous structure decreased, the maximum change was 3.69%, the elastic modulus increased, and the maximum change was 8.69%. CONCLUSIONS: For the porous structure with the same pore shape, the lower the porosity, the better the mechanical properties of the porous structure. For the same porosity, the comprehensive mechanical properties of dodecahedral porous structure were the best and octahedral porous structure was the worst; The porous structure after annealing heat treatment was more conducive to meet the performance requirements of human bone tissue.
Keywords: Porous structure, 3D printing, pore shape, porosity, mechanical properties
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising way to repair cartilage defects. Different materials have been applied in the preparation of cartilage hydrogels, but all with various disadvantages. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prepare cartilage hydrogel using type II collagen, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid, to explore their gelation effect and compressive strength, and to analyze the feasibility of their application in cartilage tissue engineering. METHODS: Type II collagen (Col II), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were mixed in a certain proportion to prepare gel scaffolds; changes in chemical groups were…detected by Fourier transform infrared. After the hydrogel was prepared, its compressive strength was measured. Umbilical cord stem cells were co-cultured with hydrogel scaffolds to observe its cytocompatibility and analyze whether stem cells had cellular activity during co-culture; histological staining was applied to observe the hydrogel loaded with stem cells. RESULTS: Cartilage hydrogels were successfully prepared with good compressive strength, and Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that Schiff base reaction occurred during the preparation process and tight chemical cross-linking was formed. The results of umbilical cord stem cell co-culture showed that the hydrogel had good cytocompatibility and the stem cells had good activity in the hydrogel. CONCLUSIONS: Cartilage hydrogels with stable structures were successfully prepared and had good compressive strength. Hydrogel scaffold could provide a suitable living environment for umbilical cord stem cells, so that they maintain normal cell morphology and activity, and has a good application potential in cartilage tissue engineering.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nowadays, biomaterials used as a scaffold must be easy to deliver in the bone defect area. Extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels are highly hydrated polymers that can fill irregular shapes and act as bioactive materials. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to show the effects of ECM hydrogels derived from bovine bone (bECMh) on proliferation, cytotoxicity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in three cells types involved in tissue regeneration, as well as biocompatibility in vivo . METHODS: In vitro , we used an extract of bECMh to test it on macrophages, fibroblasts, and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MCSs).…Cell proliferation was measured using the MTT assay, cytotoxicity was measured by quantifying lactate dehydrogenase release and the Live/Dead Cell Imaging assays. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, MCP-1 and TNF-α were quantified in the supernatants using a microsphere-based cytometric bead array. For in vivo analysis, Wistar rats were inoculated into the dorsal sub-dermis with bECMh, taking as reference the midline of the back. The specimens were sacrificed at 24 h for histological study. RESULTS: In vitro, this hydrogel behaves as a dynamic biomaterial that increases fibroblast proliferation, induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, among which MCP-1 and TNF-α stand out. In vivo , bECMh allows the colonization of host fibroblast-like and polymorphonuclear cells, without tissue damage or inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that bECMh is a biocompatible material that could be used as a scaffold, alone or in conjunction with cells or functional biomolecules, enhancing proliferation and allowing the filling of bone defects to its further regeneration.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Microcirculation plays a key role in regulating blood flow but is not considered in previous research of hemodynamics. OBJECTIVE: A curved artery model is established to study its hemodynamic characteristics based on microcirculation boundary. METHODS: The hemodynamic model of a curved artery is constructed and simulated by computational fluid dynamics. The curved artery model is simulated by fluid-structure interaction. At the same time, a porous medium is used to simulate microcirculation as the outlet boundary. RESULTS: The distribution characteristics of the blood flow velocity, the pressure and the wall shear stress in different…sections at different time of the cardiac cycle are obtained. The results show that the velocities in curved arteries decrease and the pressures gradually increase. The blood flow velocity waveform and value are affected and they are sensitive to the microcirculation boundary. However, the pressure value is only affected by the microcirculation function. CONCLUSIONS: This work is useful for researchers to deeply understand the hemodynamic characteristics of curved arteries. There is important clinical significance to analyze the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease considering microcirculation function and its coupling effect.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Imaging of cells and cellular organelles has been of great interest among researchers and medical staff because it can provide useful information on cell physiology and pathology. Many researches related to collective cell migration have been established and leader cells seem to be the ones that regulate the migration, however, the identification of leader cells is very time-consuming. OBJECTIVE: This study utilized computer vision with deep learning to segment cell shape and to identify leader cells through filopodia. METHODS: Healthy Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells cultured in a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel device allowed collective cell…migration as well as the formation of leader cells. The cells were stained, and cell images were captured to train the computer using UNet++ together with their corresponding masks created using Photoshop for automated cell segmentation. Lastly, cell shape and filopodia were filtered out using Filopodyan and FiloQuant were detected. RESULTS: The segmentation of cell shape and the identification of filopodia were successful and produced accurate results in less than one second per image. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed approach of image analysis would be a great help in the field of cell science, engineering, and diagnosis.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred route of vascular access in hemodialysis. The primary reason of fistula failure is Intimal hyperplasia (IH), which leads to stenosis. Wall shear stress (WSS) and disturbed flow are the critical parameters in the formation of IH. OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study is to explore the influence of anastomosis angle on WSS and venous outflow rate, as well as to find the ideal angle of anastomosis for AVF to standardize surgical technique. METHODS: Three-dimensional idealized geometries of end-to-side type AVF for the five various angles of anastomosis are…considered in this study. The WSS, blood flow rate at the venous outlet for non-Newtonian, pulsatile blood flow are calculated using a numerical simulation technique. RESULTS: The WSS is higher at 75° compared to other angles and least at 45° for pulsating arterial inflows. The WSS is moderate at 30°, 60° and 90°. On the arterial bed and outer wall of the vein, immediately after the anastomosis, the recirculation zone is observed. At an angle of 45° and 90° anastomosis, the outflow rate is greater at distal venous end. CONCLUSIONS: If one believes that high wall shear stress causes IH within the AVF, the results suggest that the AVF should be formed at a 45° angle to avoid IH. However, if one believes that low wall shear stress causes IH within the AVF, the results suggest that AVF should be formed at either 30° or 75° to avoid IH. The findings spotlight the importance of anastomosis angle in determining AVF hemodynamics.