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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak pandemic is a situation without a tested action plan. Rehabilitation team members have been called for duty with new responsibilities in addition to their conventional roles in the healthcare system. The infectious disease specialists are updating the knowledge base in limited time in clinical settings. The number of articles in PubMed grows at an increasing rate. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify core COVID-19 articles by citation and co-citation network analysis in PMC subset of PubMed. METHODS: Citation and co-citation network analysis methods were used to identify core articles…and knowledge base. RESULTS: COVID-19 terms query retrieved 15,387 articles in PubMed. These articles formed a citation network with 6,778 articles and 25,163 PMC-PubMed citations. The main article cluster in the co-citation network consists of 2,811 articles and 78,844 co-citations. CONCLUSIONS: The number of COVID-19 articles in PubMed is increasing at a very high rate. Citation and co-citation network analysis are advantageous techniques to identify knowledge base in a scientific discipline. These techniques may help rehabilitation specialists to identify core articles efficiently.
Keywords: COVID-19, citation network analysis, co-citation network analysis, knowledge base
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-9, 2020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), commonly known as tennis elbow, is a prevalent work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder. Medical practitioners and hand therapists manage LET with commonly available clinic-based treatments, despite no sound evidence to suggest long-term relief and functional restoration for workers with LET. Workplace-based rehabilitation is effective for injured workers with other health conditions, but no studies have investigated this rehabilitation approach in the management of LET. OBJECTIVES: (i) Identify, compare, and contrast Australian hand therapists’ and medical practitioners’ perceptions about the effectiveness of common treatments for LET, and (ii) obtain their views towards a hand…therapist delivered workplace-based education approach. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 38 medical practitioners from Western Australia and 104 hand therapists around Australia completed online surveys. Independent t -tests were used to identify between-group differences in responses. RESULTS: Despite some between-group differences regarding the perceived effectiveness of common LET treatments, both groups believed education about LET pathology, activity modification, postures, and workplace recommendations were most effective. Most medical practitioners (81%) and hand therapists (71%) believed workplace-based education delivered by a hand therapist would be beneficial for patients with acute and chronic LET. CONCLUSION: Australian hand therapists and medical practitioners believed educational approaches were the most important component in the management of LET, and supported workplace-based educational interventions provided by hand therapists in the management of LET.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nurses are exposed to high risk of fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders due to physically and mentally demanding job, which could affect their work ability. OBJECTIVE: This study tends to identify factors influencing nurses’ work ability through a macroergonomic model. METHODS: A descriptive and qualitative analysis was done in two phases. At first, 41 nurses of cardiac intensive care unit in a military hospital in Iran filled the work ability questionnaire (WAI). Then, in order to identify factors influencing work ability of the nurses, a semi-structural interview within the framework of system engineering initiative for patient…safety model (SEIPS) was conducted. Lastly, data were analysed and compared by multiple experts using directed content analysis method. RESULTS: The mean work ability of the nurses was 40.01±4.05 (good work ability). 22 themes were identified through the directed content analysis and they were classified in 5 categories of the SEIPS model including environment, tools and technology, task, person, and organization. CONCLUSIONS: Using a macroergonomic approach is helpful to identify factors influencing on nursing work ability. These factors could be considered by managers and hfe practitioners designing intervention programs to improve nurses’ work ability.
Keywords: Work ability, macroergonomics, nursing, the SEIPS model
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-9, 2020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recently, hospital services have undergone massive changes. As global competition intensifies and informed patients require improved medical services, nurses’ depression has increased. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of emotional labor and job stress on depression in nurses with long working hours via structural equation modeling. METHODS: The data were collected in three general hospitals with 300 beds or more from August 31 to September 12, 2016, and 400 nurse practitioners agreed to participate. We retrieved 350 self-reported questionnaires in total, of which 291 were analyzed (excluding 33 containing unidentifiable values and 26 outliers).…RESULTS: The emotional labor of nurses with long working hours influenced depression, whereas job stress did not. Resilience had a negative mediating effect on the relationship between emotional labor and depressive symptoms. Social support had negative mediating effects on the relationship between job stress and depression. CONCLUSIONS: To promote the mental health of nurses in Korea, policies must decrease nurses’ working hours and maintain work environments that enable them to demonstrate their full competency. Thus, it is necessary to limit long hours and implement structures and systems that promote compliance with these limitations.
Keywords: Emotional labor, job stress, depression
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-8, 2020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Demand for travel for both work and leisure continues to rise in the U.S. However, handling luggage subjects the shoulder to excessive physical loads. OBJECTIVE: To report national estimates, demographic characteristics, and injury mechanisms of patients presenting to U.S. emergency departments with luggage-associated shoulder injuries. METHODS: This cross-sectional, retrospective study analyzes the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database (2003-2017) to identify annual cases of luggage-associated shoulder injuries presenting to U.S. emergency departments. RESULTS: On average, 1,811 luggage-associated shoulder injuries presented to U.S. emergency departments annually (95% Confidence Interval: [C.I.] 1,123–2,499). Patients were…commonly females (62.3%; 57.9% –66.8%) sustaining sprains, strains, or muscle tears (60.1%; 52.6% –67.7%). The majority of patients sustained shoulder injuries while lifting their luggage (70.1%; C.I. 64.9% –75.2%). Injuries were most often observed in patients 40–49 (21.5%; C.I. 16.5% –26.5%) and 50–59 (24.9%; C.I. 20.2% –29.6%) years of age. However, those sustaining shoulder injuries due to falls to the ground were significantly older (p < 0.001) on average than those with injuries from lifting or pulling their luggage. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that at-risk individuals for luggage-associated shoulder injuries take certain precautions when handling heavy baggage to reduce said chances of injury.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Biomechanical simulation is an important tool in human-centred design, allowing for the assessment of comfort interactions between user, product and space, to optimize design features from an ergonomics perspective. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a biomechanical model for the evaluation of postural comfort levels. METHODS: The study used the scenario-based method to focus on the electronic-worker (e-worker) sedentary tablet tasks at public workplace (‘third-workplace’) configurations. An empirical method determined work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) risk levels. The experimental method was based on a motion-capture marker-based laboratory protocol and biomechanical model. Body postures…were analysed to determine the WMSDs risk to the joints, and were compared to subjective questionnaires. RESULTS: Posture was affected by the tablet target location and workplace setting. The findings confirmed our hypothesis, that neutral-position cost functions govern human motion. Almost half of the time, the e-workers’ joints tended to remain in the neutral position range; of the three third-workplace, high-risk variability was less significant between the ‘restaurant’ and ‘lounge’ settings, compared to the ‘anywhere’ configuration. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation model can contribute to optimizing comfort level in design for third-workplace settings and other sedentary work activities; it can be used to develop guidelines for minimizing work-related strain and health hazards.
Keywords: Physical ergonomics, range of motion (ROM), work-related musculoskeletal
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-19, 2020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Disasters are the result of adverse events that cause human, material, environmental, and economic and social damage. To deal with disaster management, prevention, response, and recovery organizations need a system of indicators to measure their resilience. OBJECTIVE: Develop a road map to select indicators of organizational, institutional and governmental resilience to be applied to evaluate the resilience of public Protection and Civil Defense Organizations (PCDOs) of developing countries. METHOD: A literature review on resilience indicators for disaster management using Scopus database, identifying and classifying the resilience indicators available in the scientific literature, to discuss the…possibilities of their application in PCDOs. RESULTS: Resilience indicators for disaster management available in the literature have many diverse classifications and they were developed for the evaluation of communities’ resilience. The literature review results also indicated that there is a lack of indicators to evaluate PCDOs’ resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Indicators of the institutional, organizational and governmental categories identified in the review, originally developed for the evaluation of communities’ resilience, can be used to compose a hybrid system of resilience indicators able to measure the resilience of PCDOs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The safety climate in an organization depends on people’s understanding of the safety policies and procedures, as well as the value, importance, and priority of safety in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe and predict accidents using the path analysis model (PAM) in industrial units though the analysis of the effect of safety performance and climate. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 294 workers in industrial units in Hamadan, a province in the western part of Iran. The data on safety performance and climate was collected using a questionnaire. The first part…of the questionnaire was a short version inventory (with 25 items on safety climate) that was used to assess five variables of management commitment, supportive environment, training, personal safety prioritization, and perceived work pressure. Moreover, the safety performance was measured using 10 items on safety rules and participation. The PAM was used to describe the effects of safety climate and performance on accidents. RESULTS: The results showed that the safety climate had the strongest negative impact on work pressure and safety compliance toward accident, followed by safety participation, and quality of training. Moreover, the negative influence of safety climate on accident was mainly mediated by two variables: work pressure and safety participation toward accident. The work pressure had the strongest indirect and total influence on accidents. However, none of the variables had a direct effect on accidents. Training was the most important direct cause of promoting personal safety priority. The safety compliance was more effective than safety participation in reducing accidents rates. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, it seems that perceived work pressure has an indirect effect on accidents which is mediated by other variables, mainly personal safety priority and safety performance.
Keywords: Prediction of accidents, risk assessment, safety climate, path analysis
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-8, 2020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders (CMD) are leading causes of sickness absence. Treatments for CMD that both reduce symptoms and support work participation urgently need to be developed. OBJECTIVE: Determine the potential effects of work-focused therapy combining work interventions with either meta cognitive therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy (W-MCT/CBT) for patients with CMD on sick leave. METHODS: Naturalistic study with a quasi-experimental approach. Pre- and post-scores (return to work, symptoms, return-to-work self-efficacy, clinical recovery from depression and anxiety) were compared between the intervention group (n = 87) who received immediate treatment over an average of 10.40 sessions (SD… = 3.09) and the non-randomized waitlist control group (n = 95) that had waited an average of 11.18 weeks (SD = 2.29). RESULTS: Significantly more patients returned fully to work in the intervention group (41.4%) than the control group (26.3%). Effect sizes for self-efficacy scores, depression and anxiety were large in the intervention group (d = 1.28, 1.01, 1.58), and significantly lower in the control group (d = 0.60, 0.14, 0.45). Significantly more patients in the treatment group than control group recovered from depression (54.1% vs. 12.8%) and anxiety (50% vs.10.63%). CONCLUSIONS: W-MCT/CBT may be an effective intervention for patients on sick leave due to CMD.
Keywords: Return to work, sick leave, work-focused metacognitive and cognitive
therapy, self-efficacy, mental health
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-11, 2020
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Burnout is a common response to stress and is pervasive among medical students. An increasing proportion of students are taking “gap years” following undergraduate education and before matriculation to medical school. This study evaluates rates of and risk factors for burnout, with a particular focus on students who took gap years. METHODS: Burnout was measured utilizing the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory. The primary independent variable was whether a student took one or more gap years prior to medical school matriculation. Other variables included age, gender, year in medical school, choice in specialty, and status in a combined…baccalaureate-M.D. program. Bivariate and multivariate regression was performed to elucidate relationships between student-level variables and burnout. RESULTS: A total of 31.4% of respondents were found to be experiencing high levels of burnout. In multivariate analysis, gap years were independently associated with lower levels of burnout (p = 0.041). Further, burnout decreased in a stepwise fashion with students who took 0 (p = 0.350), 1 (p = 0.192), and 2+ (p = 0.048) gap years. CONCLUSIONS: Students taking gap years exhibited significantly lower levels of burnout than those who did not. Efforts should be made in pre-medical and medical school curricula to better support students in their paths to medical school.
Keywords: Burnout, professional, education, medical, undergraduate, career
choice, students, medical psychology, personal satisfaction, life change events
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-6, 2020