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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: As cement industries have remarkably affected the economy of producer’s countries, one of the main concerns of these industries is to prevent accidents and related costs. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the relationship between the safety climate and safety performance with the moderating role of safety knowledge and the mediating role of safety motivation in the cement industry. METHODS: Data were collected from 230 Iranian employees of the cement industry using a safety climate and performance questionnaire. The relationships between variables and analysis of the collected data were tested using structural equation modeling.…RESULTS: The results indicated that the safety climate had a positive effect on safety performance in the cement industry. Moreover, management’s commitment to safety was positively or negatively related to the social support and production pressure. There was either a positive and negative relationship between social support and production pressure of safety knowledge and safety motivation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The integrative model suggested that it was important to promote the safety knowledge at all organizational levels to develop spontaneous activities and raise safety in the intended organization.
Keywords: Safety Knowledge, safety behaviors, management’s commitment, safety motivation, social support
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-9, 2020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Teachers can be at risk of exposure to psychosocial hazards. Improving workplace safety for teachers, within a ‘systems thinking’ context, should begin with understanding the work. OBJECTIVE: While much is known about what teachers do, little is known about how teachers conceptualize ‘work’. Knowing how teachers conceptualize ‘work’ provides a reference point for exploring attitudes towards work health and safety. METHODS: The paper presents a review of the literature, an overview of heuristic methodology describing and interpreting the lived experience of teachers as workers, and analysis of teachers’ accounts of work. The heuristic approach allowed…the author to compare their lived experiences and perceptions as a teacher with the lived experience of teachers in the NSW school system. RESULTS: Teaching is work that is both rewarding and hazardous. It is argued that teachers draw on battle motifs, perceive a need for safety within a workplace context, and have an ability to conduct personal risk assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the study provided direction for the second phase of the project that is aimed at exploring the ways in which teachers conceptualize psychosocial work- related hazards and the extent to which they are visible in teaching practice and policy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Semi-precious stone mining may cause occupational lung disease. The impact of inhaling silica on workers’ exercise capacity has only been partially studied. OBJECTIVES: To study lung function, exercise capacity, and identify factors associated with functional impairment. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 193 current miners from Ametista do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, medical and occupational data were collected. The diagnosis of silicosis was established by the history of dust exposure and chest radiographic findings. All workers performed a spirometry and a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). RESULTS: Of the sample 51 (26.4%)…had silicosis. Time working in mine was 14.7±8.7 years. Spirometry showed a normal, restrictive or obstructive ventilatory pattern in 75.1 %, 13 % and 9.3 % of the workers, respectively. The diagnosis of silicosis and length of time working in mining negatively affected lung function, although exercise capacity was preserved. In the multivariate analysis, time working in mining, diagnosis of silicosis and education remained significant for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ; r = 0.60; r 2 = 0.36; p < 0.001) and age and height for distance in 6MWT (r = 0.66; r 2 = 0.43; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show impaired lung function and preserved exercise capacity in current mineworkers exposed to silica. Length of time working in mining, presence of silicosis and lower education were factors associated with reduced lung function.
Keywords: Pneumoconiosis, silicosis, exercise, 6-minute walk test
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-8, 2020
Abstract: Background: Research suggests that one-third of Norwegian adults satisfy national health recommendations for physical activity, but little knowledge exists regarding activity levels in different occupations. Objectives: This study investigates the level at which kindergarten staff fulfil these health recommendations, and examines differences in physical activity levels of staff working mainly with toddlers (1–3 years) and older children (4–6 years). The study also investigates physical activity level during working time and leisure time. Methods: Physical activity levels among 43 kindergarten staff members were measured utilizing accelerometers and questionnaires. Results: The results demonstrate that 86% of…kindergarten staff satisfy the health recommendations for physical activity. Moreover, kindergarten staff working with older children were significantly more physically active than staff working with toddlers. Conclusions: Physical activity level during working time was found to be of major significance for fulfilling the health recommendations among kindergarten staff working with toddlers.
Keywords: Health recommendations, preschool staff, kindergarten
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-8, 2020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Increasingly, occupational and physical therapists are using safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) equipment, such as mechanical lifts, in rehabilitation. However, there is little guidance in the literature on how SPHM equipment can be used to assist patients to reach rehabilitation goals. The purpose of this projectwas to document and categorizecommon and innovative waysrehabilitation therapists use SPHM equipment in their clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This article investigates common and innovative uses of SPHM equipment in rehabilitation practice. METHODS: Occupational, physical and kinesio therapist employed at the Veterans Health Administration wrote narratives and took photosdescribing rehabilitation therapy…activities where they usedSPHM equipment in their clinical practice. The authors used a systematic process to review and categorize the narratives and subsequent photos by using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). RESULTS: Thirty narratives (13 innovative and 17 common) were coded into four categories on the ICF section of mobility. The most common category was “changing and maintaining basic body position”(21) followed by ““walking and moving””(5). The category ““carrying, moving and handling objects”” garnered twonarratives and there were no narratives for ““using transportation”.” CONCLUSIONS: Project findings may serve as a guide for therapists who would like to enhance their use of SPHM equipment in rehabilitation. Additional research is needed to expand the use of SPHM in rehabilitation practice and evaluate the impact on patient rehabilitation outcomes and therapist safety outcomes.
Keywords: Rehabilitation therapy, international classification of functioning, occupational therapy, physical therapy
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-11, 2020
Abstract: Background: For maternal and infant benefits, cradle, cross-cradle and football hold positions have been recommended and widely utilized by mothers during breastfeeding (BF) tasks. There is paucity of data on the biomechanical costs of these BF positions. Objective: This study evaluated the trunk lean angles and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the trunk muscles during these BF positions. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 nulliparous females carried a 6-kg weighing infant, while simulating BF tasks in each of the three BF hold positions for five minutes respectively. During each task, forward and lateral trunk lean angles were…measured with a single inclinometer. Activities of the right and left erector spinae (ES) and external oblique (EO) muscles were also measured via surface electromyography. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze at a significance level of 0.05. Results: Cross-cradle position resulted in significantly higher anterior trunk lean and right ES and EO muscle activities. Conversely, cradle position significantly elicited highest activities in the left ES and EO muscles. Left trunk lean angles were highest during the football position. Conclusion: Football BF position may pose less risk of BF-related musculoskeletal disorders in nursing mothers, as compared to the cradle and cross-cradle BF positions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Work attention in employees with schizophrenia is a significant issue in vocational rehabilitation. Background music is very popular in workplaces, and according to some investigations, can help increase attention at work if utilized appropriately. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the influence of background music tempo on attention performance in employees with chronic schizophrenia. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) study was performed to test the attention of 240 participants with chronic schizophrenia under four conditions, namely no music, fast tempo, slow tempo and white noise. RESULTS: Employees with schizophrenia achieved higher attention scores under…background music than in a no-music environment. Additionally, slow-tempo music produced higher attention scores than fast-tempo music. CONCLUSIONS: Observational results indicate that slow-tempo background music is more desirable than fast-tempo background music in a work environment involving schizophrenic individuals.
Keywords: Background music, schizophrenia, work attention, tempo
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-5, 2020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Working adults in the United States often do not engage in enough exercise to experience health benefits. With workplaces becoming increasingly sedentary, more emphasis is placed on providing exercise opportunities at work. Evidence suggests participating in exercise during the workday and socially connecting with others while exercising, can lead to positive health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine whether mental and social health factors were related to increased exercise among employees participating in a worksite group exercise program. METHODS: An egocentric network analysis was conducted on a sample of university employees…(n = 57). RESULTS: Regression analyses (Adjusted R2 = 0.501, F = 4.686, p = 0.001) suggest that depression (β = –0.548, p = 0.041), stress (β = 0.530, p = 0.016), nominating alters who exercise similarly (β = 0.326, t = 2.111, p = 0.045), average exercise scores across egonetworks (β = –0.330, t = –2.135, p = 0.043), and nominating other group exercise members (β = 0.579, t = 3.721, p = 0.001) were related to physical activity scores. CONCLUSION: These findings provide empirical support for using group exercise environments as a mechanism for increasing exercise among employees. Specifically, fostering social connections between employees involved in the program can lead to greater physical activity scores. Future research should confirm these results in larger samples, along with determining more causal relationships with longitudinal and experimental designs.
Keywords: Egonetworks, worksite wellness, group exercise, employee wellness
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-10, 2020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Malaysian traffic policemen are constantly exposed to unhealthy air in the outdoor environment, which results in various health problems. This study investigates the relationship of the personal exposure level to PM2.5 and lung functions in traffic policemen in Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru. METHODS: A pulmonary function test using a spirometer was carried out to measure the lung function of the traffic policemen. The personal exposure level to PM2.5 was measured using a pump with a PVC filter and 5.0μ m pore size. A questionnaire requesting the background data, such as age, height, and weight,…was also used for testing lung function abnormalities. RESULTS: The PM2.5 personal exposure level was found to be significantly related to lung function (predicted FEV1 and predicted FVC) at p -value < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Traffic policemen are mainly exposed to physical hazards from traffic pollutants emitted by vehicles, such as fine particles and particulate matter. The findings of this study indicate that there is a trend of lung function deterioration among traffic policemen. These baseline data can serve as a reference for the top management of traffic police to aid in the development of occupational safety and health guidelines for police officers, as the traffic police are not covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA, Act 514 1994).
Keywords: Spirometer, lung function, occupational health, respiratory health
vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-5, 2020