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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period of growth and enrichment along with many physiological and psychological challenges. These changes can lead to complications if compounded by external stress and anxiety. COVID-19 has emerged as a chief stressor among the general population and is a serious threat among vulnerable populations. Therefore, there is a need for stress management tools, such as Yoga and physical exercises, both at home and at work. These can be adopted during the pandemic with proper maintenance of social distancing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compile literature that has reported the health outcomes of Yoga intervention…on pregnancy at the workplace and analyzes both the restrictions as well as advantages of its beneficial effects in comparison to physical exercises. METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilizing PubMed and Google Scholar. The keywords used for the search include “Yoga”, “work”, “complications”, “physical exercise”, “drugs” and “COVID” indifferent permutations and combinations with “pregnancy”. We compiled the literature with respect to pregnancy complications and the effects of drugs, physical activity and Yoga for preventing these complications. RESULTS: We noted that pregnancy-related complications are becoming more prevalent because of a sedentary lifestyle, restricted physical activity and growing stress. In such situations, a home or workplace Yoga protocol can combine both exercise and mindfulness-based alleviation of anxiety for both working and non-working women. CONCLUSION: Yoga can be effective for combating stress and anxiety besides boosting immunity in pregnant working women confronted with the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire world. It is difficult to follow protocols and regulations set forth by governments, designed by the World Health Organization. The most common protocol set forth by governments is quarantining at home. Many occupations must stay home to comply with this protocol. Among these occupations, office workers are the most common group to comply and work from home. This has led to a lack of daily movement and increased sedentary lifestyle, which has made employees prone to developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Additionally, obesity is a known risk factor for this group. This commentary…presents feasible protocols aimed at helping home-based office workers stay healthy and decrease the risk of developing CHD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous research studies have demonstrated that neuro-enhancement, the use of legal or illegal drugs by healthy individuals to improve their job performance, is practiced among employees. Researchers discussed possible reasons for employees to consider the use of substances for neuro-enhancement. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of usage and motives for practicing neuro-enhancement among a sample of German junior physicians. The secondary objective was to determine associations between neuro-enhancement, mental health outcomes and quality of life. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included an online survey to analyze junior physicians’ neuro-enhancement stimulant…use and their motives for usage (n = 873). Second, mental health outcomes and quality of life were assessed. Descriptive and analytic (Kruskal Wallis test, logistic regression) statistics were obtained. RESULTS: Of the 873 junior physicians, 18% reported having used stimulants for neuro- enhancement. 8% of the physicians have taken prescription stimulants (e.g. modafinil) or illicit drugs (e.g. cannabis) at least once in their lifetime. The most common reasons for taking stimulants were to enhance concentration, to relax and to increase alertness. Neuro-enhancement was associated with emotional exhaustion (p < 0.01), lower quality of life (p < 0.05) and work-related stress (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study results give an overview on the actual situation regarding frequency and motives for taking performance-enhancing substances. The prevalence rate was low in comparison to current public debates. Decreasing the prevalence of neuro-enhancement among physicians requires the implementation of strategies targeting stress reduction and workload management.
Keywords: Drugs, performance enhancement, motives, stress management, quality of life
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several studies show that professionals in the two main models of pre-hospital care (Franco-German (FG) and Anglo-American (AA)) are exposed to different psychosocial risk factors, with consequences such as burnout syndrome. Few studies provide information on protective factors, nor are there any results on risk/protective factors from the perspective of professionals and comparing both models (FG and AA). OBJECTIVE: From the perspective of medical transport (MT) professionals, we aimed to identify the risk/protective factors that may be involved in occupational burnout syndrome (OBS), comparing Franco-German (FG) and Anglo-American (AA) pre-hospital care models, as well as emergency (EMT)…and non-emergency (non-EMT) services. METHOD: This was a qualitative research, through 12 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with participants chosen through intentional and snowball sampling. Content analysis and coding was carried out based on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model and supported by the N-VIVO computer program. RESULTS: Our results illustrate the multi-causal nature of OBS, with risk/protective factors interacting at different levels of the ecological model. Among the data found at the different levels, some of the risk factors provoking OBS most commonly cited by professionals from both models are: work overload, work schedules, the coordinating centre, relationships with managers, the lack of work-life balance, the institutional model, the privatization of companies and the bureaucratization of management. The most cited factors acting as protectors include the stress involved in the emergency services, relationships with colleagues, relationships with other professionals or users, and social recognition. DISCUSSION: In general, we conclude that there are more similarities than differences in terms of how the workers in each model perceive the risk/protective factors.
Keywords: Emergency health technicians, working conditions, burnout, paramedic ambulance technicians, psychosocial risk/protective factors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Finding the best practices for accident prevention is possible by identifying the influential factors affecting accident occurrence and their interactions as well as implementing corrective actions for the root cause factors. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to determine the cause-effect relationships and the interaction of the influential factors affecting accident occurrence and determine the critical root factors. METHODS: This study was carried out based on the opinions of a panel of experts and used the fuzzy DEMATEL method. RESULTS: The results showed that “organization safety attitude”, “safety communication”, “work and safety training” and…“safe design of systems” are root cause variables. Also, “work and safety knowledge” and “experience in the job” are individual cause variables. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational factors and some of individual variables are the critical factors that affect the occurrence of accidents. Therefore, corrective actions for accident prevention should primarily focus on the correction of these variables.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many overworked employees need tools to improve their depressive mood or sleep disorder. In Finland, a new device of bright light therapy was developed. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of bright light treatment via ear canals on improving the depressive mood and sleep disorder. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover designed, open-label trial. We examined 27 participants aged 23–52 years, assigned to either Early treatment or Later treatment groups. The Early treatment group used the device on weekdays for the first 4 weeks, followed by a 4-week observation period. The Later…treatment group had an observation period for the first 4 weeks, followed by device treatment for the subsequent 4 weeks. Every Friday, the participants were asked to answer questionnaires: A Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), an Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) Brief Form. RESULTS: While no significant effect was found on the SDS following treatment (p = 0.16), the AIS showed a significant improvement (p = 0.004), and the scores for the Depression (D) and Vigor (V) of POMs decreased significantly (p = 0.045, p = 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Bright light treatment via ear canals may improve sleep quality and depressive mood.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a newly developed return-to-work program for workers with common mental disorders from the perspective of stakeholders (insurers, employers, unions, and workers). METHODS: We used a sequential mixed design. First, we conducted a survey to evaluate the levels of stakeholder agreement with the program’s feasibility. Second, we conducted a number of independent, homogeneous-group discussions or individual interviews to deepen stakeholders’ reflections and allow co-construction of a shared perspective of the program’s feasibility. RESULTS: Overall, the stakeholders (insurers (n = 6), employers (n = 7), unions (n = 8), and workers (n… = 3)), agreed partly to totally with the feasibility of the specific/intermediate objectives, components/tasks, and duration of the components. They identified obstacles that could hinder program implementation. These obstacles pertained mainly to employers’ contexts, e.g., difficulty/impossibility of offering job accommodations. They also proposed facilitators to counteract most of these obstacles. Diverging views were found regarding both the role of union representatives and health professionals in the program, and for the duration of the components. CONCLUSION: Overall, the program was perceived as feasible to implement, provided that the potential factors discussed are taken into account. The next step will be to evaluate its implementation in real practice settings.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Workplace interventions are recommended for workers with common mental disorders, but knowledge of their action mechanisms and operationalization remains limited. The Therapeutic Return-to-Work Program, developed for workers with musculoskeletal disorders, is recommended for common mental disorders. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to adapt this program’s logic models to common mental disorders. METHODS: A program logic analysis was conducted using a literature review and a two-phase group consensus method. We submitted a preliminary adapted version of the program’s logic models and two questionnaires to health professional experts who participated in two group sessions, ultimately to produce the…final version of the models. RESULTS: We consulted 86 publications. The health professional experts (N = 7) had overall mean agreement scores of respectively 4.10/5 and 3.89/5 for questions on the program’s theoretical and operational models. The final version of the logic models adapted for common mental disorders included four specific and 15 intermediate objectives, three main components, one optional component, four key processes, and 44 tasks. CONCLUSION: The adapted logic models for the Therapeutic Return-to-Work Program show the relevance of the original objectives and components for common mental disorders. The next step will involve evaluating its feasibility with other stakeholders (insurers, employers, unions, workers).
Keywords: work, disability, workplace, intervention, program evaluation, return-to-work.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Academic advising is a central and essential element in the process of education that can help students unravel their academic problems and succeed in their academic and professional careers OBJECTIVES: To seek students’ perception about academic advising and solicit suggestions to improve academic advising in our institute. The specific objectives of the study were to assess the students’ satisfaction regarding academic advising guidance and to ascertain whether students’ perceptions of academic advising differ by their demographic characteristics and academic years. METHODS: A forty-item questionnaire was hand delivered to all the undergraduate (UG) students of College…of Dentistry, Jouf University, Sakaka, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The research questions focused on demographic information, advising assistance and guidance, satisfaction, and suggestions to improve the effectiveness of the present academic advising system. Data analysis is presented through tables and descriptive methods. RESULTS: The samples consisted of 98 males and 43 females. Overall, the respondents were positive about academic advising services they received from their respective advisors. Female students felt more positive than male students for all the statements on academic advising (p < 0.05). Additionally, our results indicate that as students climb the academic ladder, their rating of academic advising tends to rise. Strengths and weaknesses of academic advising are discussed here together with suggestions for improvements. CONCLUSION: The results of this questionnaire survey demonstrate the vital factors pertaining to the institutional academic advising services provided to the students.
Keywords: College, education, undergraduate questionnaire, academic advising, career