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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Performing common computer tasks such as pointing, clicking, and dragging requires repetitive movements that cause musculoskeletal disorders in the wrists and hands. Given the growing use of touch screens and touch pens, further studies on the ergonomics of these devices are needed. This study aimed to compare a touch pen and an ordinary computer mouse in terms of movement time, error rate, wrist posture, and comfort of use. METHODS: Performance parameters (movement time and error rate), wrist postures, and comfort when using a mouse and a touch pen were measured based on ISO 9241-9 standard with the…help of 27 participants. For data analysis, paired t test was performed using SPSS version 22. RESULTS: Using the touch pen resulted in better performance parameters than using the mouse (p < 0.05). Wrist extension and flexion were lower when performing the task with the computer mouse than with the touch pen (p < 0.05). When using the touch pen to perform the task, ulnar deviation and radial deviation were lower (p < 0.05). The overall comfort was higher when using the mouse than the touch pen. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the touch pen had better performance parameters than the ordinary mouse and also resulted in lower ulnar and radial deviations. Given the impact of habit and proficiency on users’ comfort in using input devices, it is reasonable to expect users becoming more comfortable by using touch pens on the long term.
Keywords: Ergonomic assessment, visual analog scale, postural angles, ISO
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Employees with disabilities make up a significant share of the working population. The group of employees covered by this study is hard to include in research and yet must be researched due to the vulnerable position it holds in the labour market. The topic is quite complex. OBJECTIVE: The article’s main goal is to demonstrate how to implement a survey and adapt a questionnaire for assessing competencies and motivation for training and career changes among older and less-educated employees who have disabilities. METHODS: In the paper, we discuss the approach to adapting a questionnaire and…a survey by undertaking an extensive process of different testing and adaptation stages that is presented in the article. RESULTS: We highlight some obstacles that employees with disabilities face when participating in surveys due to their low literacy skills, as well as low self-esteem, accessibility issues and other general methodological issues in the context of our population. Potential solutions gathered from all phases of the adaptation process are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Proper survey implementation and questionnaire modification must be ensured if researchers aim to increase the willingness of individuals with disabilities to participate in the survey and to gather quality results.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Even though Yoga is useful for prevention of obesity, diabetes and hypertension it is not universally practiced. The purpose of the study was to determine the benefits and barriers confronted by the community members while incorporating Yoga into routine practice and at workplace. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the motivators and barriers to Yoga practice by estimating how these elements can be useful for development and incorporation of Yoga as a workplace activity and as a profession. METHODS: A nationwide multi-centered prospective study was conducted recruiting individuals of different age groups and geographical zones in India.…Participants of Yoga intervention group were administered a questionnaire with 19 items on benefits (YBS) and 18 items on barriers for Yoga practice (BFYS). Data was analyzed using SPSS v21 software. RESULTS: Majority of the participants perceived Yoga improves “physical fitness", “relaxes mind and body”, improves “stamina”, across age groups. “Lifestyle”, “Family commitments”, “Physical over-exertion”, “No Encouragement from family”, “Occupational commitments” and “Few places to do Yoga” were perceived barriers across various geographical zones. Despite knowing the benefits of Yoga, these barriers prevented individuals from integrating it into their daily routine. CONCLUSIONS: The present study may be considered as a starting point for development of Yoga as a workplace activity and a profession based on the perceptions of its various benefits and barriers faced by a large study population spanning an entire nation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is limited existence of qualitative research on adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), who are transitioning between skills training programs and finding employment in the open labor market, in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this current study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of individuals living with ASD, regarding transitioning from a skills training program to working in the open labor market. PARTICIPANTS: The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with ten participants, who were diagnosed with ASD, and working in the open labor market, as well as five key informants, who…have worked with autistic individuals in a skills training program. METHODS: The data collected, using an explorative, descriptive, qualitative method, were analyzed using thematic analysis, and resulted in three emerging themes. RESULTS: Theme one: The ‘disorder ’ in the workplace –The individual and collective barriers that individuals experience in the workplace are described, including social, emotional, and communication difficulties, as well as the stigmatization experienced by persons with a disability. Theme two: Making the workplace work –The facilitative support that individuals are exposed to, in the form of intervention from occupational therapists, sensory psychologists, and other forms of skills training programs, are described. In addition to supportive intervention, the relationships and networking within, and outside of the workplace, are discussed in theme two. Theme three: What works for me –The individual adaptations made by the participants, in the form of unique coping mechanisms in the workplace, as well as in the home environment, are discussed. CONCLUSION: It was observed that, while there are barriers to the transitioning of autistic individuals into the open labor market, there are enablers that facilitate a less challenging transitioning process, in the form of family and workplace support, as well as skills training, and self-identified coping mechanisms.
Keywords: Return to work, adaptation, coping skills and strategies, adaptation, vocational rehabilitation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Orthopedic and obstetrician-gynecologist (OB/GYN) surgeons have risks for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) during work in the operating room (OR). Risks for MSD have not been identified as a result of work outside the OR or during non-work tasks. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine risk factors for MSD in an orthopedic and OB/GYN surgeon. METHODS: A case study format and mixed method design were used to gather data by using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) to measure MSD risks in the OR; the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH)…to measure surgeons’ upper extremity disability; observation of surgeon office hours; and semi-structured interviews to gather qualitative data. RESULTS: Both surgeons had risks for MSD during occupational performance outside of work, with some risks similar to those experienced at work. Both surgeons had MSD risks during work inside and outside the OR. Both surgeons experienced MSD symptoms exacerbated by work and non-work tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying and reducing MSD risk should include a comprehensive analysis of occupational performance for orthopedic and OB/GYN surgeons.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to describe the Illinois Work and Well-being Model (ILW2 M), a multi-domain framework for conceptualizing the employment development of people with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). The model emphasizes the interaction of contextual and career development domains to improve participation in the areas of work, society, community, and home. A brief discussion of potential implications regarding vocational rehabilitation research and service is offered with the overall goal of reinforcing employment development as the foundation of vocational rehabilitation services for adults with TBIs.
Keywords: Traumatic brain injury, career development, well-being, employment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Continual reforms of the Australian Disability Employment Services (DES) program aim to improve employment outcomes for people with disabilities, including people with a psychosocial disability who experience high levels of unemployment. OBJECTIVE: To understand contextual factors in the lives of DES participants with a psychosocial disability that influence their engagement with and potential benefits from the DES program in the context of the 2018 reforms. METHODS: Thematic analysis of 30 qualitative interviews with DES participants with a psychosocial disability was conducted as part of the Improving Disability Employment Study between November 2017 to October 2018.…RESULTS: Findings highlight diverse life challenges experienced by DES participants including disrupted education, inadequate access to mental and general health services, and financial and housing insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The life circumstances of DES participants with a psychosocial disability are often complex and undermine their engagement with employment services and access to labour markets. Despite considerable investment in ongoing reforms, these circumstances continue to undermine the effectiveness of the DES program.
Keywords: Psychosocial disability, employment services, work, social inequities
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a significant problem in the oral health profession. This study explores oral health professionals’ physical and psychosocial working environments in Australian workplaces. METHOD: Twelve oral health professionals from the public and private dental sectors participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and a coding framework developed which was refined and clarified during analysis. RESULTS: Participants reported a range of physical and psychosocial experiences in their work environment. Three major categories of themes were identified: Job Characteristics – particularly equipment unsuited for task and time constraints; Job…Satisfaction – support from management and colleagues was valued, as was the significance of providing oral health care, particularly to children and minority groups; and Individual Factors – MSD and fatigue were reported by most participants. CONCLUSION: Oral health professionals are exposed to a range of workplace physical and psychosocial hazards associated with the development of MSDs. Risk management programs for the prevention of MSDs should take into account the range of physical and psychosocial hazards that oral health professionals are exposed to.
Keywords: Musculoskeletal disorder, work environment, physical, psychosocial, oral health profession, dentistry.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Population data are gathered using the sampling unit at the appropriate time and due to various reasons (e.g. nutrition survey of the population, style of living, etc.), they can be changed due to trends for longer periods of time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper is to analyse selected anthropometric parameters relevant to the design of the earth-moving machine operator workplace environment and to compare the gathered data to the standard ISO 3411. METHODS: The set of five dimensions and factors of the Slovak adult male population was analysed over the course of the years…2002–2018. RESULTS: A significant increase in the parameter –body weight was observed. In total, mentioned dimension of male population increased by 0.4 kg (0.5%) during the time of analysis. Following the dot plot and linear regression equation the fact that the trend in growth is becoming a global phenomenon in Slovakia can be stated. CONCLUSIONS: In the future, it will be necessary to focus on updating the standards defining the workplace size in this industry sector as well as in others.