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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: According to the modern concept of occupational medicine adopted by the World Health Organization, relationship between health and work is fully established while the levels of physical, chemical and biological harmful production factors can be considered as causative factors of occupational diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to determine the aging rate of at risk workers engaged in chrome ore processing in order to increase their health status and quality of life. METHODS: Biological age (BA) of workers was calculated by measuring the blood pressure, static balance (SB), respiratory rate (RR) and by…a questionnaire survey on subjective health assessment (SHA). RESULTS: Based on the workplace certification, we have selected unfavorable professions to assess the rate of aging. We have determined the aging rate, according to which biological age exceeds the official age of workers engaged in chrome ore processing in harmful working conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In harmful working conditions, the aging rate accelerates manifesting in at risk worker’s health status with BA-PBA ratio in the range from 2.6 to 7.9 years. Regulators, crusher attendants and refractory men, who work in unfavorable climate, should be the leading professional occupations in terms of proper biological age (PBA) monitoring.
Keywords: Biological age (BA), official age (OA), harmful working conditions, professional occupation, risk group, health assessment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The use of school furniture with a height that is anthropometrically mismatched can lead children into taking awkward postures while sitting. In Korea, desks and chairs for primary schools have seven different height levels, and these levels are regulated by the national standard KSG-2010. These levels serve to accommodate children of all heights, but the choice problem remains because of the many alternatives. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the anthropometric feasibility of the currently used guidelines for the selection of height level for Korean primary school furniture. In addition, we examine children’s ability to select anthropometrically recommendable desk…and seat heights. METHODS: In study 1, anthropometric data from 2005 Korean children were acquired and a mismatch analysis was performed under the assumption that children were paired with the height level recommended by the guidelines. In study 2, we conducted a desk and seat height selection experiment that included 36 children. RESULTS: The results of study 1 revealed that about three quarters of children could be matched by following the guidelines. The results of study 2 showed that a quarter of children selected matchable desk and seat heights by themselves. We developed new guidelines using classification algorithms based on the employed data in study 1, and it was confirmed that the new guidelines could significantly increase the degree of match. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that the currently used guidelines need to be revised and that children had difficulty in selecting the appropriate height of school furniture by themselves. The new guidelines suggested in this study are expected to contribute to the correct usage by Korean primary school children.
Keywords: School furniture, anthropometry, primary school children, guideline, desk height, seat height, size recommendation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Research on workplace sexual harassment has focused largely on its direct antecedents and consequences. In contrast, few studies unravel mechanisms through which sexual harassment is related to organizational outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Following affective events theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate mental health as a mechanism in the relationship between sexual harassment and organizational commitment. METHODS: Quantitative data were collected using a survey design for which 249 employees responded. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling showed that the mediation model was partially supported for the overall sample because mental health was a partial and…not full mediator. However, post-hoc analysis revealed that the mediation model was suited to men, but not women. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to sexual harassment research by (a) investigating a novel mechanism in the sexual harassment to organizational commitment relationship and (b) highlighting the importance of gender differences when attempting to unravel the sexual harassment causal chain. Implications for organizations regarding the development of sexual harassment policies, complaint procedures, and training are explained.
Keywords: Counterproductive work behaviour, unwelcomed sex-related behaviors, psychological distress, psychological well-being, affective events theory
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Usability is an essential characteristic of software development, which needs to be evaluated mainly through questionnaires. However, the questionnaires available in Spanish are limited and not available for most software’s developers and users. OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to design and validate a new questionnaire to evaluate software usability, considering the characteristics of efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction as defined by the International Standards Organization. METHODS: The Software Usability Assessment Questionnaire or SUAQ in Spanish language was designed and validated using Kendall’s coefficient, Cronbach’s Alpha, Factorial Analysis and Scree test. RESULTS: The questionnaire’s validation was…carried out by five experts through an evaluation of the clarity, coherence, and relevance of the proposed items. Once the questionnaire was administered to 95 participants, an overall reliability value of Cronbach’s alpha of 0.839 was obtained. The factorial analysis is viable since a value of 0.757 was found in the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test, and a significant value was obtained in Bartlett’s sphericity test. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed questionnaire proved to be valid and reliable, and therefore, suitable to evaluate software usability in the Spanish language.
Keywords: Usability, software development and evaluation, Cronbach’s alpha, questionnaire
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Work accommodations are adjustments made in the work place or to policies surrounding employment to accommodate an individual with a mental disorder to be successful in completing work related tasks. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to identify work accommodations that are available and that are provided to individuals with mental disorders. In addition, associated cost-effectiveness and cost-benefits of these accommodations are examined. METHODS: Studies published between 1990–2016 from four databases were reviewed. From these databases, studies that specified accommodations that were available/provided and/or addressed cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis of work accommodations were…included. RESULTS: Of the 1362 eligible studies, only 15 were included. Work accommodations that were provided to individuals assisted in mitigating limitations in the work place and improved length of job tenure, as well as reduced the severity of certain mental disorders. The costs associated with these accommodations were found to be minimal and had positive economic benefits for employers. CONCLUSION: Work accommodations help individuals with mental disorders meet employment expectations with minimal cost.
Keywords: Accommodation, employment, mental disorder, psychiatric disability, work
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a serious global public health problem. Globally and annually, at least 10 million individuals live with TBI that is serious enough to result in death or hospitalisation OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore and describe the experiences of women with traumatic brain injury, in their work environments utilising the Model of Occupational Self-efficacy as a vocational rehabilitation approach METHOD: Ten females with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analysed utilising a qualitative approach to elucidate themes. Semi-structured interviews were…also conducted with two occupational therapists who served as key informants. RESULTS: Two themes emerged depicting the participants’ experiences and perceptions of barriers and facilitators which influenced their return to work: (1) Barriers to work participation for women with TBI, 2) Re-establishing a worker identity by means of vocational rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: Both personal and environmental factors emerged as hindrances to returning to work for women with traumatic brain injury. Vocational rehabilitation proved successful in establishing a worker identity amongst participants; however, particular focus should be placed on the function-dysfunction continuum of the process of work place integration to further develop and enhance sustainable return to work programmes for women with traumatic brain injury.
Keywords: Return to work, therapeutic use of self, self-efficacy
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Workplace walking interventions can lead to positive physical and psychological outcomes for employees. For optimal success, however, innovative approaches that appeal to employees are needed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity levels and experiences of university staff members who walked shelter dogs during their lunch breaks. METHOD: Participants walked with a dog and a partner for 30 minutes during their lunch break one day a week for four weeks. Accelerometer data was collected during participant walks and interviews conducted post-intervention. RESULTS: Quantitative results indicated that participants averaged…24.9±7.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (range 12– 37 min) during the walk. Qualitative findings suggested that the incorporation of shelter dogs into a walking intervention encouraged participants to take part in the study and continue each week. CONCLUSIONS: Both the quantitative and qualitative data from this pilot study support the notion that including shelter dogs into a university-based walking program encouraged physical activity engagement and adherence.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Research is needed on how to optimize the return-to-work process for persons with mental health problems. OBJECTIVE: To develop a model that explains how employer and rehabilitation professional mental health literacy may influence strategies used in the return-to-work of persons with mental health problems. METHODS: A grounded theory study design was used to collect and analyse interview data from 23 employers and 22 rehabilitation professionals. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in four categories, illustrated in a conceptual process model: 1) seeing mental health problems through past experiences; 2) separating understandable and incomprehensible mental health…problems; 3) balancing safeguarding one’s personal interest with providing adequate support; and 4) facing conflicts and uncertainty in employee/service user return-to-work. A positional map of employer/rehabilitation types was created based on level of negative attitudes and uncertainty in supporting employees/service users and the employer in relation to the level of comprehensive understanding of mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: Professional mental health literacy needs to be increased. Interventions need to be developed that provide employers with targeted support and knowledge in mental health literacy. Education on how to prevent and detect common mental health problems in the workplace is needed.