Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is common among older adults and associated with impaired knee strength. OBJECTIVE: Describe isokinetic testing procedures and clinimetric findings associated with the testing of knee strength in the presence of knee OA. METHODS: Relevant articles were identified by an electronic search of PubMed using the search string “isokinet * AND knee osteoarthritis.” RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-nine relevant articles were found. The articles support the validity and reliability of isokinetic strength testing for patients with knee OA. The responsiveness to various therapeutic interventions…has been reported. CONCLUSIONS: Isokinetic dynamometry is a valid and reliable measure of muscle strength in knee OA.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muscle weakness is a common impairment accompanying stroke. OBJECTIVE: Describe isokinetic testing procedures and clinimetric findings associated with the testing of older individuals with weakness following stroke. METHODS: Relevant articles were identified by an electronic PubMed search using the search string “isokinet * AND stroke.” RESULTS: Seventy-six relevant articles were found. The articles largely support the validity and reliability of isokinetic strength testing of older patients with stroke. Little data is available that provides specific information on the responsiveness for such measures. CONCLUSIONS:…Isokinetic dynamometry is a valid and reliable measure of muscle strength after stroke. However, it is not particularly practical and lacks information regarding responsiveness.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Active interventions for pes planus, including short-foot exercises (SF) and toe-spread-out exercises (TSO), aim to continuously support the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) by activating the abductor hallucis (AbdH) muscle. However, compensatory movements, such as ankle supination and/or plantar flexion, often occur during these exercises. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a novel exercise, i.e., the toe-tap (TT) exercise on AbdH activity and MLA angle. METHODS: A total of 16 participants with pes planus participated in this study. Participants performed SF, TSO, and TT exercises. Electromyographic activity of the AbdH and MLA angle…during three AbdH contraction exercises were recorded using surface EMG system and digital image analysis program, respectively. The differences in outcome measures among the three exercises were analyzed using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: The EMG activity of the AbdH was significantly greater during the TT exercise compared to the SF and TSO exercises. The MLA angle was significantly smaller during the TT exercise compared with the SF and TSO exercises. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the TT exercise could be effective in activating the AbdH and increasing height of the MLA, as part of a sports rehabilitation program for individuals with pes planus.
Keywords: Abductor hallucis, medial longitudinal arch, pes planus
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) is a new tendency in training used to complement conventional training. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to analyze the effects of training with WB-EMS on body composition, strength and balance in middle-aged women. METHODS: Twenty-eight women were randomly assigned to two groups: the WB-EMS group (age = 48.1 ± 4.3 years) or the control group (CG) (age = 51.1 ± 5.4). All participants continued their training of 2 days⋅ week - 1…and 60 min⋅ day - 1 of endurance-dynamic strength exercises and additionally did 20 minutes more of dynamic strength exercises one day⋅ week - 1 : the WB-EMS group did the additional training with WB-EMS and the CG did the same training but without WB-EMS. Body composition, muscle isokinetic strength of the knee flexors/extensors and postural stability were measured before and after 8 weeks of training. RESULTS: After the training program, the WB-EMS group showed lower values for the waist circumference (83.00 ± 7.37 vs. 78.50 ± 7.30 cm; p < 0.01), hip circumference (104.80 ± 8.61 vs. 101.00 ± 6.78 cm; p < 0.05) and total fat mass (37.04 ± 6.08 vs. 36.26 ± 5.78%; p < 0.05). In balance stability the WB-EMS group reduced their Fall Risk Index (1.70 ± 0.51 vs. 1.30 ± 0.38 AU; p < 0.01) and deviation (1.50 ± 0.43 vs. 1.03 ± 0.74 AU; p < 0.01) after training and showed lower values in the Fall Risk Index (p = 0.007) and deviation (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: The WB-EMS training program helps reduce the risk of falling and improves body composition variables and balance results in middle-aged physically active women.
Keywords: Exercise, electromyostimulation, WB-EMS, body composition, balance, strength
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a complementary tool for therapeutic exercise for muscle strengthening and may potentially enhance exercise performance. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous aerobic training (CA) coupled with NMES enhance the changes in the eccentric/concentric muscle contraction patterns of hamstring and quadriceps. METHODS: Forty-five healthy sedentary male participants performed cycling training 3 times per week for 8 weeks combined with/without NMES performed at a load equivalent to 65% and 120% of I VO 2max (intensity associated…with the achievement of maximal oxygen uptake). Anthropometrics, blood lactate measurements, I VO 2max , T Lim VO 2max (time-to-exhaustion) and isokinetic strength parameters were measured at baseline and post-training using a randomized controlled trial. RESULTS: The conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps-ratio (HQR: Hcon/Qcon) at 60 ∘ /s and the Dynamic Control Ratio (DCR: Hecc/Qcon) at 180 ∘ /s significantly increased both in the dominant (D) and non-dominant (ND) limb in the HIIT + NMES group (p < 0.05). There was a positive significant correlation between the individual changes in D HQR at 60 ∘ /s and I VO 2max (r = 0.94, p = 0.005) and the DCR at 180 ∘ /s and T Lim VO 2max (r = 0.90, p = 0.015), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The increases in the eccentric muscle contraction and DCR following HIIT + NMES seem to improve fatigue tolerance, cause less fatigue and oxidative stress on the lower limb during pedaling at high intensities.
Keywords: Blood lactate concentration, conventional and functional H:Q ratio, isokinetic strength, time to exhaustion, maximum oxygen consumption
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Kicking is the major way to score in a Taekwondo competition, which makes athletes’ leg power a key quality. However, the characteristics of leg power are very complex and it is difficult to generate physical models to predict training performance. OBJECTIVE: To study training programmes of leg power for Taekwondo using data-driven techniques in correlation analyses and modelling. METHODS: An 8-week program for training back squat training was performed using two devices, a Cormax training system and a conventional barbell. Data analysis was conducted to identify the factors affecting the explosive power…training. Finally, a data-driven modelling paradigm employing fuzzy rule-based systems was developed to predict the training performance. RESULTS: The Cormax system performed better in improving athletes’ maximum power and velocity. Maximum leg power was best correlated with athletes’ height. The developed predictive models showed good accuracy despite possession of limited training data. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated some new training devices which could greatly improve power training. Moreover, a state-of-the-art modelling strategy was able to construct accurate models for training and exercise performance. The predictive models will likely enhance the anticipation of training outcome in advance which may assist in formulating and improving the training programmes.
Keywords: Taekwondo, leg power, training, weighted squat, data-driven modelling, fuzzy rule-based system
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muscle weakness, though not the primary impairment accompanying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been documented in patients with the disease. OBJECTIVE: Describe isokinetic testing procedures and clinimetric findings associated with the isokinetic testing of older individuals with COPD. METHODS: Relevant articles were identified by an electronic PubMed search using the search string “isokinet* AND (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease OR COPD)” and by a hand search. RESULTS: Thirty-four potentially relevant articles were identified. Seven were excluded, leaving 27 for review. The articles provide considerable support for the validity of…isokinetic strength testing of older patients with COPD. Little data are available that provides specific information on the reliability and responsiveness of the measures. CONCLUSIONS: Research provides considerable evidence for the validity, limited evidence for the reliability, and no statistical evidence for the responsiveness of isokinetic testing of muscle strength among older adults with COPD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Sarcopenia is a component of frailty, which is a common geriatric syndrome for which the quantification of muscle strength is important. OBJECTIVE: Describe studies that have used isokinetic testing for detecting sarcopenia and determine whether there is an isokinetic strength level that can best detect sarcopenia. METHODS : A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Our literature search involved the following key words: (isokinet*) AND ((sarcopenia) OR (frailty) OR (muscle weakness). Sarcopenia reference values for isokinetic knee flexion and extension at 60 ∘…/s were determined using summary data from relevant articles. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies that were relevant and lacked major methodological flaws were included. Most measured peak torque of the knee extensors and/or flexors. The measurements were found to be valid and responsive. The net moment weighted averages for knee extension torques were 83 ± 3 Nm for males and 60 ± 7 Nm for females in sarcopenia population. For knee flexion, the weighted averages for knee extension torque were 47 ± 6 Nm for males and 36 ± 5 Nm for females in sarcopenia population. All weighted averages were significantly lower than the reference values for the healthy population aged 60–70 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The isokinetic strength values reported herein can be used to identify sarcopenia in older men and women.