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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The objective of the current study was to determine the in vitro passive transverse mechanical properties of skeletal muscle with Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) tests. The starting hypotheses was that the time–temperature‐superposition principle could be used to expand the DMTA results to a 1 kHz frequency range. Experiments were performed with rat hind leg skeletal muscle tissue samples on a rotational rheometer using a parallel plate geometry. Because of the small size and low modulus of the samples, the standard test geometry was altered and the samples were shifted from the center to the edge of the plates. From…strain sweep tests it became clear that for strains smaller than 0.003 the muscle tissue behaves linearly. In the linear region storage moduli ranged between 24 kPa (ω=1 rad/s) and 42 kPa (ω=100 rad/s) at T=4°C and 22 kPa and 33 kPa at 29°C within the experimental frequency range. The loss modulus decreased with increasing frequency and ranged between 7 and 4 kPa at 4°C and 4.5 and 3.5 kPa at 29°C. Although the properties are clearly temperature dependent, a temperature shift in phase angle δ could not be detected, thus Time Temperature Superposition is not allowed for skeletal muscle in vitro.
Abstract: The literature review about the shear linear properties of brain tissue reveals both a large discrepancy in the existing data and a crucial lack of information at high frequencies associated with traffic road and non‐penetrating ballistic impacts. The purpose of this study is to clarify and to complement the linear material characterisation of brain tissue. New data at small strains and high frequencies were obtained from oscillatory experiments. The tests were performed on thin porcine white matter samples (corona radiata) using an original custom‐designed oscillatory shear testing device. At 37°C, the results showed that the mean storage modulus (G′) and…the mean loss modulus (G″) increased with the frequency (0.1 to 6310 Hz) from 2.1±0.9 kPa to 16.8±2.0 kPa and from 0.4±0.2 kPa to 18.7±2.3 kPa respectively. The reliability of these new dynamic data was checked over a partially common frequency range by conducting similar experiments using a standard rheometer (Bohlin C‐VOR 150). Data were also compared in the time field. From these experiments, the relaxation modulus (G(t)) was found to decrease from 24.4±2.1 kPa to 1.0±0.3 kPa between 10−5 s and 270 s.
Keywords: Impact biomechanics, brain injury, tissue mechanics, linear viscoelasticity
vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 209-223, 2005
Abstract: TLR4 plays an important role in atherosclerosis, but little is known about the precise mechanism. Herein, we investigated the role of TLR4/NF‐κB signaling pathway in monocyte–endothelial adhesion induced by low shear stress and Ox‐LDL. We found that low shear stress up‐regulated TLR4 expression in endothelial cells, and that ox‐LDL exerted an obvious synergistic action as revealed by RT‐PCR and Western blotting analysis. Low shear stress also significantly up‐regulated IL‐8 expression in endothelial cells. Meanwhile, NF‐κB activity and the adhesion force of monocytes were increased, and there was a synergetic action of ox‐LDL. However, following transfection with a functional mutant of…TLR4 (C3H/HeJ, TLR4 Dicd) or addition of anti‐human TLR4 mAb, IL‐8 expression was obviously decreased, NF‐κB activity in cells remarkably inhibited, and the adhesion force of monocyte significantly reduced. Nevertheless, anti‐human TLR2 mAb had no similar effects. These findings suggest that TLR4 may be involved in the early stages of atherosclerosis, associating ox‐LDL, inflammation/infection, and low shear stress. Therefore, TLR4 is expected to be a new target for preventing and treating atherosclerosis.
Abstract: The technical complexity of previous rheometers has tended to limit the availability of blood viscosity data obtained over a wide range of shear rates. However, an automated tube‐type viscometer, the Rheolog™, has been developed; it employs a disposable flow assembly and less than five minutes are required to obtain blood viscosity results over a shear rate range of 1–1500 s−1 . We have carried out validation studies of the Rheolog™ using normal human blood and have compared these results with those obtained by cone‐plate and Couette viscometers; storage time and temperature effects were also evaluated. Replicate measurements indicated mean CV…levels less than 5%, and were independent of hematocrit and shear rate. Rheolog™ blood viscosity data agreed closely with those from other viscometers: average Rheolog™ differences from mean cone‐plate and Couette values were −0.3% at 28% hematocrit, −1.4% at 41% hematocrit (i.e., native), and 1.0% at 56% hematocrit. Storage at room temperature up to 8 hours and at 4°C up to 4 days had minimal effects whereas notable changes were observed when stored for 3 hours at 37°C. Our results indicate that, within the hematocrit and shear rate limits employed herein, the Rheolog™ provides rapid, accurate and reproducible blood viscosity data, and suggest its usefulness for both basic science and clinical studies.