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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: From the known numbers and properties of normal blood cells, it is apparent that the analysis of the flow of diluted blood, through micropore filters, should allow calculation of the properties of leukocytes without the need for their prior purification. The number and transit time of a “slow” leukocyte population can be deduced by fitting the flow, of diluted blood through 5 μ m membranes over about 150 s, to the appropriate mathematical model, which is chosen by the use of a suitable statistical test-the runs test. This population of leukocytes equates numerically with the monocyte population of normal blood;…cells have a transit time, through 5 μ m pores, of 27.7 ± 10.9 s. The remaining “fast” leukocytes represent the sum of granulocytes and lymphocytes; their flow properties can be deduced from the measured initial flow rate of diluted blood and the estimated properties of the red blood cells. The properties of the red cells can be assessed from filtration of purified suspensions with any concentration of cells from 0.52 × 109 /ml to 3.0 × 109 /ml. The transit times for red cells and granulocytes/lymphocytes, in blood diluted with about an equal volume of buffer, are 1.36 ± 0.17 ms and 1.48 ± 0.33 s, respectively. The transit times of blood cells, through 5 μ D pores, are therefore inversely related to their numbers in blood.
Keywords: Leukocytes, erythrocytes, filterability
vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 603-615, 1994
Abstract: The Boyden chamber technique for chemotaxis uses a mesh filter that constitutes a matrix for cell locomotion and, at the same time, creates a local restriction for convective fluid movements that allows the establishment of a diffusive concentration gradient of chemotactic substance in the filter. In the present study, the Boyden chamber was modified by the introduction of a filter sandwich that allowed cell migration both upwards and downwards and by the use of a fluid density gradient controlling cell buoyancy and mechanically supporting a movable chemotactic gradient. This method was used to study chemotaxis and random migration of human…granulocytes under the influence of gravitational forces and movable gradients of f-MLP. The results show that gravity affected cell motion significantly during random migration but not during chemotaxis. The rate of chemotactic migration was dependent on the steepness of the spatio-temporal f-MLP gradients. A stationary spatial gradient produced less migration than a gradient that was slowly moved through the filter sandwich in a direction opposite to that of the cell migration. The presence of f-MLP at constant concentration caused a minor, statistically insignificant, increase of the rate of random migration.
Abstract: The rheological properties of a number of natural and synthetic polysaccharides have been compared with porcine gastric mucin (PGM), a mucin-containing saliva substitute (Saliva Orthana® ) and with clarified human whole saliva (CHWS). The effects of ionic strength, pH and calcium and fluoride ions on the viscoelastic properties of these polymers have been investigated. Of the polysaccharides tested, xanthan gum and scleroglucan appeared to resemble CHWS most in viscoelastic behavior and may be potential candidates for use in artificial saliva. Both PGM and Saliva Orthana® , however, did not show any elastic behavior, whereas a viscosity comparable to human saliva…was only observed in highly concentrated solutions. Of the polysaccharides tested, scleroglucan also had mucin-adhesive properties resulting in rheological synergism. This may be the first step in mucoadhesion which may protect underlying oral surfaces in vivo .