Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 90.00
Impact Factor 2023: 1.1
Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: A method for the measurement of compliance in mesenteric frog capillaries and rat venules is described briefly. The error introduced by capillary compliance in the measurement of hydraulic conductivity is then discussed in the light of these measurements and some of the recent literature on hydraulic conductivity are reassessed.
Abstract: The question of what components of the artery wall determine its hydraulic conductivity is approached in two different ways. Firstly, the hydraulic properties of an individual component, hyaluronate, are measured. It is shown that hyaluronate alone cannot account for the high resistance of the artery but hyaluronate entangled in a restraining filter has a hydraulic conductivity similar to that measured for the whole artery. Secondly, the hydraulic properties of porcine thoracic aortae which have been subjected to various extraction procedures are measured. Freezing and autoclaving have little effect, but alkali extraction increases the hydraulic conductivity by three orders of magnitude.
Abstract: Arterial wall mass transport has particularly attracted attention because it may be implicated in the development of arterial disease, including arteriosclerosis. A short review is presented of the structure of the arterial wall and of studies of mass transport within it. Recent findings confirm that mass transport occurs across the entire arterial wall apparently from the lumen to the adventitial lymphatics. Evidence has emerged of inhomogeneity of the distribution volume for extracellular tracers in different layers of the wall. An attempt is made to interpret results which indicate that distension per se of arteries and increase of medial smooth…muscle tone tend to compact the medial interstitium whereas pressure driven convection across the wall tends to expand that tissue. These findings imply a potentially important role of endothelial permeability, smooth muscle tone and luminal pressure in influencing solute transport in the wall and wall transport properties.
Keywords: arterial wall mass transport, arterial haemodynamics, arterial interstitium
vol. 21, no. 1-2, pp. 197-205, 1984
Abstract: The passive transport of water through the endothelial cell layer junctions is considered from the standpoint of hydrodynamic theories based on ultrastructural information. The local geometry of tight junctions based on molecular level forces and elastic membrane properties has been modeled and leads to estimates of the hydraulic resistance of the clefts. It is shown that the large resistance measured experimentally can be accounted for in this model. The transport of large macromolecules via vesicles which diffuse across the endothelial cell has been developed, but recent experimental data do not appear to support this mechanism as a primary pathway. Fused…vesicles forming an open channel appear to be rare. Leaky junctions, such as around dying endothelial cells or produced by cytoskeletal changes within the cells, may be important in control of endothelial permeability. Another kind of model is a fiber matrix model of the endocapillary layer, extending into the intercellular clefts which can also account for the molecular seiving properties of the endothelial cell layer but may produce a large resistance to water flux.
Abstract: Cervical mucus glycoproteins (mucins) were extracted by using slow stirring in 6M-guanidinium chloride supplemented with proteinase inhibitors. Subsequent purification was achieved by isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in CsCl/guanidinium chloride. The whole mucins (Mr 10 × 106 – 15 × 106 ) were degraded into ‘subunits’ (Mr 2 × 106 – 3 × 106 ) by reduction. Trypsin digestion of subunits afforded glycopeptides (‘T-domains’) with Mr 0.4 × 106 . The relationship between the intrinsic viscosity and Mr for the whole mucins and the fragments suggests that cervical mucins are linear flexible macromolecules. This view is…supported by hydrodynamic data.
Abstract: Mucin glycoproteins are known to be the principal determinants of epithelial mucus rheology and hence of mucociliary transport rates. We are studying the structure of such glycoproteins using a model mucin purified from canine tracheal pouch secretions. Of particular interest is the effect on mucin structure of increased Ca++ such as occurs in certain disease states. Quasielastic laser light scattering was used to study the effect of Ca++ on the hydrodynamic radius of the mucin molecules. Scattering data from 0.3 mg/ml mucin solutions in physiological phosphate buffer containing 0,5 × 10−5 M, and 5 × 10−4…M Ca++ were analyzed to obtain an average translational diffusion coefficient and the distribution of molecular radii for the dispersion. The effect of Ca++ was to decrease the average Stokes radius. The light scattering results are supported by rheologic measures of mucin gel viscoelasticity.
Abstract: The effects of mono-, di- and trivalent ions on the rheological properties of a purified mucus glycoprotein gel have been investigated. Monovalent ions increased the fluidity of the gels in a concentration dependent manner. The effect of calcium was pH dependent; at neutral pH values this ion produced a maximum in the gel viscoelasticity at a concentration of 0.5 mM, whilst at pH 5.0 the increase in viscoelasticity was sustained up to 3.0 mM. The same concentrations of copper (II) at pH 5.0 had a similar but greater effect on the viscoelasticity. Al3+ at pH 3.0 increased the viscoelastic…moduli throughout the range studied (0.1–2.0 mM), whereas iron made the gels more fluid at low concentrations, but increased the viscoelasticity to above control values at a concentration of 2.0 mM.
Keywords: mucus, viscoelasticity, cations, gel structure
vol. 21, no. 1-2, pp. 253-263, 1984
Abstract: We studied the relations between the mucociliary beat frequency (MF) measured photometrically on the depleted frog palate and the rheological properties of sputum collected in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MF was lower (p < 0.001) with sputa (11.3 ± 3.3 Hz) than with frog mucus (16.9 ± 3.3 Hz) used as controls. The relative transport rate (Tr) of sputa was closely correlated (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) to the relative MF. Significant correlations were observed between MF on the one hand and viscosity (r = −0.68, p < 0.01), elastic modulus (r = −0.70, p < 0.01)…and spinability (r = +0.49, p < 0.05) on the other. These results suggest that abnormalities in the rheological properties of bronchial secretions may impair the mucociliary transport rate by first decreasing the ciliary beat frequency.
Abstract: Measurements of the rate of mucociliary transport in the airways of the lower respiratory tract have been shown to be influenced by the techniques and protocols used. To avoid the effects associated with invasive techniques and anesthesia in animal models used to study the effect of maturation, drugs, disease, and inhaled pollutants on mucociliary transport we have developed unsedated dog and baboon models of mucociliary transport using radioaerosol techniques. As far as they have been tested these animal models of mucociliary transport react to drugs such as isoproterenol and atropine in the same manner as in man.