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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Aggregation measurements of washed human erythrocytes (RBC) were made in an NaCl-PBS solution under laminar shear conditions. An artificial aggregation was caused by decreased pH and reduced ionic strength and characterized by collision efficiency, i.e. the probability of permanent aggregate formation. It was found that aggregation increases with reduced ionic strength and decreased pH value of the medium. Aggregation can be inhibited by addition of human serum albumin and neuraminidase treatment (removal of sialic acids). As calculations show, the results cannot be explained by the force balance between electrostatic repulsion and attraction due to dispersion forces. It was assumed that…this type of aggregation involves reversible changes of the surface structure of REC. Possible conclusions for the arrangement of the glycophorins of the glycocalyx (surface coat) are discussed.
Abstract: The rigidity of a dilutely dispersed system of spherical particles having an elastically anisotropic shell is theoretically obtained in the case of material incompressibility. Considering characteristics of biological cells the complex intrinsic viscosity [η ∗ ] of this system is numerically calculated in the case that the medium and the inside region of the shell contain viscous liquids and the shell region is made of an elastic substance. In [η ∗ ] vs. frequency curves anomalies occur at some range of anisotropic parameters. This anomaly may be called a negative…relaxation, when the relaxation strength takes a negative value.
Abstract: The flow conditions of red cells and plasma in microvascular ramifications were investigated in a biological model of the frog’s retrolingual membrane. Upon the controllable reduction of blood flow from the arterioles into the microvascular bed, with an appropriate decrease of red cell: plasma ratio in the blood, a tendency of the red cells to be drawn along the parent main capillaries without entering the branching capillaries was in evidence. These latter thus transformed into the plasmatic capillaries deprived of red cells. The factors being responsible for this process were found to be as follows: (a) the diameter of branching…capillaries, (b) the angles of off-shoots, (c) the degree. of slow-down of blood flow velocity in the branches, and (d) the reduction of red cell: plasma ratio in parent vessels. The direct relationship was found between these factors and the transformations of the off-shoots into the plasmatic capillaries.
Keywords: blood flow conditions in bifurcations, red cell: plasma ratio in microcirculation, red cell and plasma separation in microvessels, active and plasmatic capillaries, microcirculation
vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 613-620, 1982
Abstract: In order to take measurements of electrical and mechanical characteristics on red blood cells in motion in a hydrodynamic or electric field, a micro laser doppler anemometry apparatus was developed. Because of the small dimensions of the scattering volume of this apparatus, measurements can be taken on individual cells. Two fields of measurement were studied: that of red blood cells in free motion in a hydrodynamic field (speeds of a few mm/s), an that of very low speeds (a few μ m/s) the cells moving in a hydrodynamic or an electric field. We can thus obtain simultaneously for each red…blood cell: the apparent dimension, the speed, the electrical charge. This methodology gives us multiparametric statistics on individual characteristics of a population or red blood cells.
Abstract: The influence of long term systemic glucocorticoid treatment and food restriction on the mechanical properties of muscle tendons and skin was investigated. A group of male, albino rabbits received prednisolone intramuscularly for 63 days. Another group was food restricted to achieve the same weight loss as the prednisolone treated group. The untreated control group had free access to food and water. Peroneus tertius and longus tendons and strip specimens of lumbal skin were tested in a materials testing machine. Long term prednisolone treatment reduced the dry weights of the muscle tendons, with no change in collagen content and “stress”-strain parameters.…The elastic stiffness measured after exhaustion of the viscosity in the tendons was found to be increased. The collagen content of skin was reduced, which resulted in a weakening of the skin as such. However, the extensibility of the skin strips was reduced and the maximum “stress” value, i.e. load value normalized to collagen content, was increased. The food restriction did not change the mechanical properties of muscle tendons. For skin the collagen content was reduced and so were the maximum load and “stress” values after food restriction. It is concluded that both long term glucocorticoid treatment and food restriction reduce the amount of collagen and strength of skin, consistent with clinical experiences. However, in long term glucocorticoid treatment the remaining collagen has increased stability, probably caused by a changed cross-linking pattern, in contrast to a reduced stability of skin collagen in food restriction. Skin is thus influenced more easily than muscle tendon.
vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 631-646, 1982
Abstract: Electrical phenomena of cell membranes may be examined by means of cell electrophoresis. Direct microscopic techniques are tedious, inaccurate and rarely, reproducible. Therefore, the authors have developed a new device using Doppler velocimetry. After describing the apparatus, they propose two methods for testing treatment against electroosmosis and present the first biological applications on mixed populations of red cells.