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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Microscopic and photomicrographic measurements were made of the vessel diameter and the width of the axial stream of red cells in blood vessels of the hamster’s cheek pouch, the velocity of blood flow being varied by an annular pneumatic cuff, through which the cheek pouch was passed. From these measurements the width of the plasmatic zone (P.Z.) was found to decrease gradually to zero as the cuff pressure was raised and the velocity of blood flow progressively lowered. From observations on injected graphite particles and blood platelets in plasma-skimmed vessels it was evident that a P.Z. results from the action…of axially directed forces on suspended particles. Following injection of pontamine blue into a femoral vein, a narrow unstained zone of plasma was observed next to the vessel wall of arterioles in the cheek pouch when the velocity of blood flow was high; this unstained zone was not apparent when the velocity of flow was low. The significance of this observation is discussed in relation to the concept of there being an immobile layer of plasma in contact with endothelium of living blood vessels and in relation to the phenomenon of wall adherence of blood and plasma in artificial capillaries.
Abstract: A combined rheological and dark-ground microscopical study of mouse brain tissue is reported. In its near physiological state, brain tissue is an aggregate of hydrophilic colloidal particles with marked ion- and water-binding capacity. The colloidal state of the tissue in vivo must be intermediate between that of an elastic gel and of a paste-like aggregate of particles. On compression, the tissue exhibits plastic flow under the Mises-Hencky condition. In distilled water the hydration pattern of the tissue is that of a substance with an isoelectric zone between pH 4 and pH 5. The acid-hydrated tissue has elastic gel-like properties,…whereas in alkali, solvation occurs, yielding a viscous fluid.
Abstract: The thrombelastograph records continuously the shear modulus of the clot from the very beginning of the clotting reaction. The shear modulus of a normal plasma clot at the end of the clotting process is about 5000 dyn/cm2 , i.e. about 600–2400 times less than that of rubber. A clot of normal native blood has approximately the same shear modulus as that of recalcified plasma with a normal platelet count. The adherence of the clot in the measuring device of the apparatus ensures that retraction is negligible. The measured shear modulus includes the retractive force and the shear modulus of…the fibrin in varying proportions. In the glass tube, on the other hand, the retraction process and the fibrin shear modulus operate in opposite directions. The physical property of a blood or plasma clot here discussed is a combination of several effects, such as platelet number and viability, fibrinogen concentration, ionic milieu and the retraction cofactor, which seem to influence the mechanical strength and the elastic tension of the clot. Compared with it, a clot from purified fibrinogen and thrombin is a very weak material. Recently reestablished “normal values” of the constants from the thrombelastograph for normal native blood were: r = 12 min 26 sec (s = ± 1 min 34 sec ), k = 5 min 35 sec (s = ± 1 min 1 sec ), me = 108 (s = ± 17.7 ). The male group had the same values as the female one. According to several authors, citrated or oxalated blood or plasma have widely different values depending on the varying methods of decalcification and recalcification.
Abstract: The case of the flow of a particulate suspension through a capillary tube is considered, and an improved analysis in terms of a simple model, consisting of a clear annulus of the suspending phase surrounding a core of the suspension, is presented. The approximations of previous authors have been avoided. The thickness of the “effective” annulus is demonstrated, under readily realizable experimental conditions, to be the same irrespective of whether calculations are based on measurements of flow or of changes in the mean concentration within the tube. The method of analysis has been applied to the published results…of previous authors, and the essential features of the wall effect have been deduced in the case of suspensions of mammalian red cells, and of rigid spheres. The need for further experimental data is indicated.