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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel wearable wireless-sensing technology on a glove to measure the bio-potentials and impedances of acupunctures on a whole palm in a non-invasive manner. Moreover, the device can transmit the information to a remote cloud server to learn at normal condition, and take measurement later for health condition analysis and monitoring. An example is given how to measure the acupuncture impedances and bio-potentials on a palm. One can see if certain acupuncture's impedance or bio-potential is not follow the Ohm's law or voltage divider rule along a meridian, then the health condition of the corresponding organ maybe…with some problem. This discovery is not found in the previous literatures.
Keywords: Wireless health monitor, wearable rubber glove, acupuncture bio-potentials and impedances, scanning elastic electrodes
Abstract: This study measured epidermal and dermal temperatures under different cryogen spray cooling (CSC) conditions to determine the optimum cooling conditions for skin rejuvenation. For this purpose, CSC conditions were applied before a laser transmission for varying spurt times of 50, 150, and 200 ms with delay times of 150 and 200 ms. A long-pulsed 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser irradiated the skin surface of a pig with a condition of fluence of 26 J/cm2 and a spot diameter of 8 mm. The pulse duration was set to 30 ms during all experiments. This study found that all employed CSC conditions…significantly decreased internal-external skin temperatures. Moreover, skin temperatures were influenced more by variations in spurt time of CSC compared with the delay times. Based on these experimental results, two spurt times were selected as the optimum CSC conditions for skin rejuvenation: 50 ms with delay time of 150 and 200 ms and 150 ms with a delay time of 150 and 200 ms.
Abstract: Nowadays, detecting fetal ECG using abdominal signal is a commonly used method, but fetal ECG signal will be affected by maternal ECG. Current FECG extraction algorithms are mainly aiming at multiple channels signal. They often assume there is only one fetus and did not consider multiple births. This paper proposed a single channel blind source separation algorithm to process single abdominal acquired signal. This algorithm decomposed single abdominal signal into multiple intrinsic mode function (IMF) utilizing empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Correlation matrix of IMF was calculated and independent ECG signal number was estimated using eigenvalue method. Nonnegative matrix was constructed…according to determined number and decomposed IMF. Separation of MECG and FECG was achieved utilizing nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Experiments selected four channels man-made signal and two channels ECG to verify correctness and feasibility of proposed algorithm. Results showed that the proposed algorithm could determine number of independent signal in single acquired signal. FECG could be extracted from single channel observed signal and the algorithm can be used to solve separation of MECG and FECG.
Abstract: The authors have developed a practical wrist rehabilitation robot for hemiplegic patients. It consists of a mechanical rotation unit, sensor, grip, and computer system. A myoelectric sensor is used to monitor the extensor carpi radialis longus/brevis muscle and flexor carpi radialis muscle activity during training. The training robot can provoke training through myoelectric sensors, a biological signal detector and processor in advance, so that patients can undergo effective training of extention and flexion in an excited condition. In addition, both-wrist system has been developed for mirror effect training, which is the most effective function of the system, so that autonomous…training using both wrists is possible. Furthermore, a user-friendly screen interface with easily recognizable touch panels has been developed to give effective training for patients. The developed robot is small size and easy to carry. The developed aspiring interface system is effective to motivate the training of patients. The effectiveness of the robot system has been verified in hospital trails.
Keywords: Wrist rehabilitation robot, myoelectric sensor, mirror effect, interface system
Abstract: Malaria must be diagnosed quickly and accurately at the initial infection stage and treated early to cure it properly. The malaria diagnosis method using a microscope requires much labor and time of a skilled expert and the diagnosis results vary greatly between individual diagnosticians. Therefore, to be able to measure the malaria parasite infection quickly and accurately, studies have been conducted for automated classification techniques using various parameters. In this study, by measuring classification technique performance according to changes of two parameters, the parameter values were determined that best distinguish normal from plasmodium-infected red blood cells. To reduce the stain…deviation of the acquired images, a principal component analysis (PCA) grayscale conversion method was used, and as parameters, we used a malaria infected area and a threshold value used in binarization. The parameter values with the best classification performance were determined by selecting the value (72) corresponding to the lowest error rate on the basis of cell threshold value 128 for the malaria threshold value for detecting plasmodium-infected red blood cells.
Abstract: In this study, an automatic microfluidic fluorescence-array measurement system is developed to detect the concentration of organic phosphate based on the luminol-hydrogen peroxide catalytic fluorescent mechanism. Not only sample quantity and cost can be reduced, but also detection time, accuracy and precision can be improved in the system. The system is composed of a CCD image module, a stepper motor with driver, a microfluidic fluorescence array, a background light elimination module, and a dynamic image-analyzed interface. The pesticides of chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion of organic phosphate are chosen as experimental samples. Only a 2.5 μ l quantity of sample is required…to have a fast response time of 1.4 second. Experimental results show that the sensitivities of chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion are 1.88 V/ppm in the range of 0.166 ∼ 10 ppm with averaged error of 1.66% and 0.32 V/ppm in the range of 0.03 ∼ 10 ppm with averaged error of 1.68% respectively. The organophosphorus effective detection range of the developed system covers the legal prescription for pesticide residues.
Keywords: Organophosphorus measurement, centrifugal microfluidic, fluorescence-array, chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion
Abstract: As the focus of personal healthcare shifts from patient treatment to early detection and prevention, it is becoming increasingly important to manage personal wellness in our daily lives. Personal health monitoring of physical activities and status can be used to show users the distribution of their daily activities, making it easier for people to assess their health, adopt better lifestyles, and potentially decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a CA5W1H Onto-based life data monitoring model that provides basic monitored information from various devices and ensures preventive and proactive service for personalized healthcare. Additionally, we propose…a life data analysis method to correlate the self-monitoring of activities with the status of the human body.
Keywords: Life data monitoring, life data analysis, personalized healthcare, self-monitoring, ontological concept, CA5W1HOnto
Abstract: In this study, several variables related to the thickness of the retinal layer were measured via optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the clinical applicability of such measurements was evaluated to differentiate between diabetic cystoid macular edema (DCME) and postoperative cystoid macular edema (PCME). To this end, a total of 120 subjects (30 healthy individuals, 60 DCME patients, and 30 PCME patients) were selected as the experimental subjects. The six risk factors included the thicknesses for the total retina (TR), the inner retina (IR), the photoreceptor outer segments (POS), the outer retina (OR), the ganglion cell (GC), and the retinal nerve…fiber layer (RNFL), and these were estimated by using a hierarchical approach through observations from OCT image scans. All of the risk factors were obtained from the OCT images captured within a 6-mm diameter from the center of the macula. The results of the experiment indicated that the proposed method can reliably differentiate between DCME and PCME. Moreover, as DCME and PCME progressed, the most significant deterioration was found in the central macular region. These results suggest that the proposed method has clinical applicability for the diagnosis of DCME and PCME from OCT images.
Abstract: Although researches had analyzed gait using small sensors, they analyzed only normal gaits. Thus, a research that can overcome the spatial limitations of the existing motion analyses and diagnose abnormal gaits for medical treatment is needed. Accordingly, this research developed the portable gait detection system that can detect gait using a gyroscope, and evaluated the accuracy of the system. The results showed an average recognition error rate of 1.7% for the normal and abnormal gaits, and confirmed that the gait cycle was detected with a high degree of accuracy. Using these characteristics, we could distinguish or diagnose, and treat, an…abnormal gait.