Journal of Cellular Biotechnology - Volume 7, issue 2
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Journal of Cellular Biotechnology is a peer-reviewed international journal for advancing research activities in the field of cellular biotechnology. It serves as a medium for the publication of full papers, invited reviews, short communications, technical notes and letters to the Editor-in-Chief on all aspects of cellular biotechnology. This comprises molecular biological topics covering biochemical, chemical, pharmacological or bioprocess engineering aspects, as well as the development of novel biomaterials. Therefore, cellular biotechnology differs from biology, biochemistry, and other basic life sciences by its emphasis on using the knowledge of bioscience to solve important practical problems. Papers presenting information of a multidisciplinary nature - not suitable for publication in a journal devoted to a single discipline - are particularly welcome.
Manuscripts submitted for the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology are expected to cover activities related to molecular diagnostics, the expansion of human primary cells for individualized therapies or drug testing, 2- and 3-dimensional co-culture techniques, cell line validation, tissue engineering, and stem cell biology for the treatment of human pathologies. This includes studies on the design of reactors and research on cellular biology and physiology of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo, and tissue. Of special interest is the rational manipulation of reactions through metabolic engineering techniques or specific reactor operations that lead to biomaterials with unique properties. Also, biochemical and physiological studies of metabolism and enzymes as relevant for tissue culture cells, investigations at the molecular level including transcription/translation control; design and engineering of products by molecular strategies; engineering of cellular modification and transport systems such as post-translational protein modifications as well as protein and metabolite secretion; molecular strategies of screening for new or modified products (e.g. pharmaceuticals or bioactive compounds). In addition, investigations in preclinical animal experiments are welcome.
The endeavour of the Editor-in-Chief and publisher of the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to cell-cell or cell-material interactions all over the world. The editorial board members of the
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in cellular biotechnology is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He/she is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic osteolysis is known to be the main reason for aseptic instability after the arthroplasty or dental implantation. The use of tissue-engineered scaffolds that allow bone formation area, produced using flow or rotational bioreactor, seems to be a promising approach for such bone lesions treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bone neo-extracellular matrix formation within the three-week culture of a scaffold in a coaxial rotational bioreactor generating the preliminary mathematically modelled FSS values with the aim to develop a tissue-engineered scaffold for periprosthetic osteolysis prevention, but reactor critical characteristics like fluid shear stress (FSS) should be fine-tuned to…achieve good cell density and prevent cell loss by the scaffold. METHODS: Thin film biodegradable polymer carrier, produced with electrospun and then seeded with hMSCs (human mesenchymal stromal cell) and culture for three weeks in rotational bioreactor, which generates the preliminary math model-calculated FSS from 4 to 8 mPa. Results were assessed with laser scanning confocal microscopy with immunofluorescence, and electron scanning microscopy with spectroscopy. RESULTS: After two weeks of culture, there were no significant differences between the density of hMSC cultured in the static conditions and bioreactor but after 3 weeks the cell density in the bioreactor increased by 35% compared to the static conditions (up to 3.53×106 ±462 per 1 cm2 , P < 0.001). The immunofluorescence intensity exhibited by type I collagen after two and three weeks of culture increased 2.5-fold (48.3±0.39 a.u., P < 0.001) and 1.31-fold (74.0±0.29 a.u., P < 0.001) in the bioreactor, but for osteopontin after 3 weeks of culture in the static conditions was similar to those in the bioreactor. CONCLUSIONS: Optimization of the reactor characteristics with the mathematically modelled FSS values could significantly improve cell proliferation, differentiation, and enhanced formation of the neo-extracellular matrix within 3 weeks in the rotational bioreactor.
Abstract: Coronavirus disease (COVID 19) which is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease transformed to a pandemic and affected people’s lives all over the world. It caused death to millions of people all over the world. In this project we focused on finding out the correlation of SARS-CoV2 with other respiratory diseases causing viruses like MERS and H1N1 influenza viruses. We further investigated to understand the mutations that occur in the sequences of the SARS-CoV2 during the spread of the disease and correlated it with the functional…domains of proteins. The resulted phylogenetic tree indicated that SARS-CoV2 is closely related to the MERS and H1N1 viruses are distantly related. The mutation analysis of 10 different proteins of the SARS-CoV2 shows that there were more than 50 point-mutations among 34 countries sequences for six proteins. Interestingly, four proteins did not any mutation during the analysis. Therefore, these four proteins may be taken into consideration during the development of the diagnostics or therapeutics against this disease.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Insecticide usage has increased in the tropics and subtropics due to the high prevalence of vector-borne infections, even though insecticide use effectively reduces insect-borne diseases. Insecticide exposure can cause oxidative stress and have severe consequences for human health. The study was then designed to evaluate oxidative stress and its effects on immunomodulatory and renal integrity among Wistar rats exposed to pyrethroids. METHODS: Eighty-four Wistar rats were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Fifty-one rats were exposed to 1.2 %w/v pyrethroids, while the remaining thirty-three rats were grouped as non-exposed. The groups were divided into three different…groups, each with 7, 21, and 41 days. After days of exposure, the animals in each group were anesthetized, and blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava. Using standard spectrophotometric techniques, the levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), urea, creatinine and uric acid were determined. Blood activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were determined. ELISA was used to determine levels of IgG, IgA, IgE, TNF-α, and NGAL. Data obtained were statistically compared. RESULTS: The serum mean levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH, and TAS were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) while mean levels of MDA, H2 O2 , IgG, IgE, IgA, TNFα, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), urea, uric acid, and creatinine were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) from 7 to 41 days exposure in exposed groups. NGAL had a higher area under the ROC curve than urea and creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: This study observed that pyrethroids can cause oxidative stress, deplete antioxidant levels, nephrotoxicity, and may modulate both humoral and cellular immune functions. It also established NGAL as a sensitive diagnostic tool and early biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI).
Abstract: Chronic periodontitis is nowadays popularly regarded as Dysbiosis, [1 ] which causes destruction of tissues rich in collagen like periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingival connective tissue. The oral biofilm comprises many periodontal pathogens better regarded as ‘triggers’ in causing chronic periodontitis. Since, not everyone will be affected in the same manner due to periodontal pathogens. Some might not elicit a host response while, the others might have exaggerated response. So, host modulation therapy came into existence to counteract the exaggerated host response. The chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) have emerged to inhibit the inflammatory response or to reduce the…collagenolytic activity of host. Though a derivative of tetracyclines, it still lacks an antimicrobial action and hence, can be used for periodontitis for longer duration with no adverse effects of gastrointestinal toxicity which parent tetracyclines have.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence is a relatively newer technology in the field of medical world. This science uses the machine – learning algorithm and computer software to aid in the diagnostics in medical and dental fields. It is a huge talking point in the field of technology which is spreading it’s wings in all possible sectors at a great speed. This field covers solutions from coaching solutions to diagnostics in medical field covering under the umbrella of all what can be achieved by machine and deep learning. CONTENT: In dentistry, artificial intelligence is creating a revolution in all sections…from collection of data, creating algorithms for orthodontic procedures, diagnostic records in the aspect of radiographic data, three dimensional scans and cone beam computed tomography, CAD CAM systems for restorative and prosthetic purposes. Similarly continuous research is being done in the field of periodontics in terms of measuring bone loss, amount of plaque present and much more. CONCLUSION: The field of artificial technology with its varied applications will change the face of dentistry in the upcoming times. Artificial intelligence with its application of machine learning will change the face of dentistry in future.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence, CNN, ANN, periodontics, dentistry
Abstract: Recent epidemiological studies reveal that more than two-third of the world’s population suffers from one of the chronic forms of periodontal disease. The primary etiological agent of this inflammatory disease is a polymicrobial complex, predominantly Gram negative anaerobic or facultative bacteria within the sub-gingival biofilm. These bacterial species initiate the production of various cytokines such as interleukin-8 and TNF-α, further causing an increase in number and activity of polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) along with these cytokines, PMNs also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide via the respiratory burst mechanism as the part of the defence response to infection. ROS just like the…interleukins have deleterious effects on tissue cells when produced in excess. To counter the harmful effects of ROS, human body has its own defence mechanisms to eliminate them as soon as they are formed. The aim of this review is to focus on the role of different free radicals, ROS, and antioxidants in the pathophysiology of periodontal tissue destruction.
Keywords: Antioxidants and vitamin C, neutrophil, reactive oxygen species
Abstract: After explaining the meaning of SARS-CoV2, the protection rules for the disease caused by this virus are described in order to eradicate the resulting pandemic. Methods to differentiate asymptomatic from symptomatic patients will be mentioned. Human lungs, heart, kidney, endothelium and erythrocyte have specific binding sites for the SARS-CoV2. The aim of this opinion was to highlight some new disposable technology to identify two cell properties. One of them is the vascular endothelial cell (EC) receptor binding to the SARS-CoV2 and the other is related with red blood cells (RBCs) as SARS-CoV2 carrier.