Affiliations: Department of Pediatrics, Section of Child Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Note:  Address for correspondence: Charles J. Marcuccilli, The University of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Neurology, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC3055, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Tel.: +1 773 702 6487; Fax: +1 773 702 4786; E-mail: email@example.com.
Abstract: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that effects individuals of all ages, but can be particularly devastating to a developing child. The consequences of epilepsy can extend beyond the occurrence of seizures, with adults and children experiencing fractures 2-6 times more frequently than the general population. Vitamin D deficiency and its effects on bone health in children with epilepsy is becoming an increasingly recognized health care concern. In addition, vitamin D deficiency may lead to other significant health problems, such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, asthma and type 1 diabetes. Evidence has accumulated implicating antiepileptic drugs, particularly when used for long durations and in combination with each other, in depletion of bone mineral density and hypovitaminosis D. This review will focus on the current data demonstrating an association between vitamin D deficiency and the chronic use of antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy with a particular emphasis on bone health. Potential mechanisms underlying antiepileptic drug-induced osteopenia and vitamin D deficiency are reviewed.
Keywords: Vitamin D, epilepsy, bone health, children