Affiliations: [a] Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Adeleke University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria
| [b] Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
| [c] Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
| [d] Department of Laboratory Programs & Logistics, Chemonics International Inc, Utako, Abuja, Nigeria
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria
Corresponding author: A.D. Atere, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Adeleke University, Ede, Nigeria. Tel.: +2348039501172; E-mail: email@example.com. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8802-3762.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:Insecticide usage has increased in the tropics and subtropics due to the high prevalence of vector-borne infections, even though insecticide use effectively reduces insect-borne diseases. Insecticide exposure can cause oxidative stress and have severe consequences for human health. The study was then designed to evaluate oxidative stress and its effects on immunomodulatory and renal integrity among Wistar rats exposed to pyrethroids. METHODS:Eighty-four Wistar rats were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Fifty-one rats were exposed to 1.2 %w/v pyrethroids, while the remaining thirty-three rats were grouped as non-exposed. The groups were divided into three different groups, each with 7, 21, and 41 days. After days of exposure, the animals in each group were anesthetized, and blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava. Using standard spectrophotometric techniques, the levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), urea, creatinine and uric acid were determined. Blood activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were determined. ELISA was used to determine levels of IgG, IgA, IgE, TNF-α, and NGAL. Data obtained were statistically compared. RESULTS:The serum mean levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH, and TAS were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) while mean levels of MDA, H2O2, IgG, IgE, IgA, TNFα, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), urea, uric acid, and creatinine were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) from 7 to 41 days exposure in exposed groups. NGAL had a higher area under the ROC curve than urea and creatinine. CONCLUSIONS:This study observed that pyrethroids can cause oxidative stress, deplete antioxidant levels, nephrotoxicity, and may modulate both humoral and cellular immune functions. It also established NGAL as a sensitive diagnostic tool and early biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI).