Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging - Volume 1, issue 1
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Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging (BSI) is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to the timely publication of basic and applied research that uses spectroscopic and imaging techniques in different areas of life science including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bionanotechnology, environmental science, food science, pharmaceutical science, physiology and medicine. Scientists are encouraged to submit their work for publication in the form of original articles, brief communications, rapid communications, reviews and mini-reviews.
The journal is dedicated to providing a single forum for experts in spectroscopy and imaging as applied to biomedical problems, and also for life scientists who use these powerful methods for advancing their research work. BSI aims to promote communication, understanding and synergy across the diverse disciplines that rely on spectroscopy and imaging. It also encourages the submission of articles describing development of new devices and technologies, based on spectroscopy and imaging methods, for application in diverse areas including medicine, biomedical science, biomaterials science, environmental science, pharmaceutical science, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, microbiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, etc.
Abstract: Altered choline phospholipid metabolism is a metabolic hallmark of cancer. Malignant transformation of breast cancer cells results in a switch from high glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and low phosphocholine (PC) to low GPC and high PC. Glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase (GPC-PDE; E.C. 126.96.36.199) catalyzes the degradation of GPC to choline (Cho) and glycerol-3-phosphate. The GPC-PDE gene(s) responsible for the relatively low GPC concentration in breast cancer cells have not yet been characterized. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 5 (GDPD5) displays GPC-PDE activity, and is rapidly inhibited by sodium chloride and urea (NaCl/urea). We chemically inhibited GPC-PDE with NaCl/urea in nonmalignant MCF-12A breast epithelial cells, as…well as in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of cell extracts demonstrated that exposure of MCF-12A, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to NaCl/urea (n=5) significantly increased GPC and decreased PC, resulting in a low [PC]/[GPC] ratio. A high [PC]/[GPC] ratio is associated with high malignancy in breast cancer cell lines. Inhibiting GDPD5 altered the choline phospholipid metabolite profile of breast cancer cells toward a less malignant metabolic profile. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the two breast cancer cell lines contained significantly elevated GDPD5 mRNA levels compared to nonmalignant cells, which matched the low GPC levels in cancer and high GPC levels in nonmalignant cells. These results indicate that GDPD5 is responsible for the relatively low GPC levels in breast cancer cells, and that it may play an important role in choline phospholipid metabolism of breast cancer.
Keywords: Choline, phospholipid metabolism, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 5, GDPD5, breast cancer, malignant, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, RT-PCR
Abstract: Soft tissue calcification has been linked to many disease states. Differences in the chemical composition of calcifications not only aid in the understanding of disease onset and progression but also help in correlating with the pathogenesis. A rare case of a huge intra-cardiac calcified lesion within the left atrium of heart was diagnosed in an 80-year-old male patient. Chest CT and X-ray screening, morphological observation, histopathological examination, and Raman spectral analysis of this giant cardiac calculus were investigated. Both chest CT and X-ray images showed a huge lesion with an obvious calcified ring and a shadow that almost completely occupied…the left atrium of the heart. The histopathological examination revealed deep blue–purple (H&E) and black (von Kossa) stains of calcium salts interspersed within the non-calcified tissue. Morphologically, this giant cardiac calculus was a hard, brownish-yellow, fist-shaped calculus (about 50×45×30 mm in size) surrounded by a layer of thick white tissue. The brownish-yellow areas on the encrusted surface of the cardiac calculus had a high level of calcium hydroxyapatite after portable Raman spectroscopic detection, but the cholesterol component was predominant in the layer of firm white tissue. Some type-B carbonate apatites and proteins were also identified. The portable Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe evidenced that this giant cardiac calculus was composed of cholesterol, calcium hydroxyapatite, type-B carbonate apatite and protein.
Abstract: The focus of this Editorial is recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities for evaluation of the microstructure and macromolecular organisation of articular cartilage. We place a specific emphasis on three types of measurements: (1) MRI transverse spin-relaxation mapping (T2 mapping); (2) diffusion-tensor imaging and (3) compression micro-MRI (μMRI) measurements of articular cartilage in vitro. Such studies have a significant role to play in improving the understanding of the fundamental biomechanics of articular cartilage and in the development of in vitro models of early osteoarthritis. We discuss how the supramolecular organisation of the cartilage extracellular matrix and its…behaviour under mechanical compression can be inferred from diffusion-tensor and T2 maps with in-plane resolution ~100 μm. The emphasis is on in vitro studies performed under controlled physiological conditions but in vivo applications of T2 mapping and DTI are also briefly discussed.
Abstract: Raman spectroscopy is an emerging biophotonic tool that advanced in recent years due to steady improvements in instrumentation for excitation and collection, and the availability of fiber optic probes. This review describes the principles of fiber optic Raman probes and their applications in cancer research of lung, breast, skin, bladder, brain, cervix, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract.
Abstract: Quantitative mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of metals in biological tissue sections by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using matrix-matched laboratory standards has been established previously. Here an improved calibration strategy is proposed, correcting for variable section thickness by normalization of sample and standard ion intensities to the average 13 C+ ion signal of all ablated sample and standard material, respectively. Altered metal metabolism is known in Alzheimer's disease of which amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice are a popular model. Quantitative distribution analysis of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in horizontal brain sections of 45 week…old Tg2576 transgenic mice showed a 22% decrease of Cu and changes of Fe, Zn and Mn of −1%, −7% and −17%. Local evaluation across a set of anatomically defined regions of interest showed an increased circum-ventricular to parenchyma ratio of Cu pointing to a higher Cu efflux and a heterogeneous pattern of Fe changes pointing to clearance of Fe at the sites of early pathology. Congruencies to synchrotron X-ray fluorescence data on distinct types of APP mice are discussed. MSI by LA-ICP-MS thus proved as a valuable and versatile tool for studying the cerebral metallo-architecture and the validation of animal models.
Keywords: Imaging of metals, LA-ICP-MS, metallo-architecture, Tg2576, APPswe
Abstract: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into a variety of non-hematopoietic tissues. They also maintain healthy heamatopoiesis by providing supportive cellular microenvironment for hematopoietic precursor cells in bone marrow. The present study aimed to investigate global structural and compositional changes in BM-MSCs during beta thalasemia major (β-TM) using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). Firstly, BM-MSCs were characterized in terms of their morphological, immunophenotypical and differentiation properties. Then, variation in the macromolecular concentrations between studied groups was obtained visually. The significant increase in lipid, protein and nucleic acid concentrations in thalassemic BM-MSCs with respect to…the healthy controls were attributed to enhanced cell proliferation and bone marrow activity during ineffective erytropoiesis (IE). The significant decrease in the concentration of the mentioned macromolecules after bone marrow transplantation therapy was interpreted as recovery of IE. Based on their spectral differences healthy control, pre and post-transplant group BM-MSCs were successfully discriminated by hierarchical cluster analysis. This study demonstrated that FTIR imaging can probe interactions between HSCs and MSCs in bone marrow microenvironment rapidly, non-destructively and with minimal experimental preparation procedure by considering the effect of BMT therapy.
Abstract: Decellularized heart valve scaffolds can be used for pulmonary heart valve replacements in heart surgery. In order to assess quality parameters of heart valves prior to implantation into patients various techniques can be applied, including ultrastructural evaluation and biomechanical testing. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used here to study protein secondary structure and solvent accessibility in decellularized heart valve matrices. FTIR was used to study proteins in the three main types of structures in decellularized heart valves: leaflet, pulmonary artery wall and heart muscle. The amide-I band region was used to reveal differences in the overall protein secondary structure…amongst tissues. Leaflet material contains a relatively high contribution of α-helical structures, whereas artery matrix contains a relatively high content of triple-helix and β-sheet structures. Solvent accessibility of tissue proteins was studied by exposing material to D2 O. The exchange of hydrogen of the NH amide-II bond for deuterium originating from D2 O was visible as an increase in the area of the amide-II band (1500–1400 cm−1 ). The amide-I band also depicted changes in shape and position during incubation in D2 O: a low frequency band at around 1625 cm−1 increased as a function of time. Remarkable differences in hydrogen-to-deuterium exchange kinetics and protein solvent accessibility were observed among the three types of heart valve matrices: proteins in artery matrix are highly accessible to solvent, whereas proteins in leaflet and heart muscle structures are relatively inaccessible to solvent and show slow hydrogen/deuterium exchange. The differences in protein solvent accessibility in the different types of matrices likely reflect differences in scaffold porosity.
Keywords: Biological scaffolds, collagen, heart valves, infrared spectroscopy, protein secondary structure, protein solvent accessibility, tissue engineering
Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) methods provide anatomical, physiological and metabolic assessment of the cancer non-invasively. In vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides information on endogenous metabolites present in tissues which is useful not only for diagnosis but also for monitoring the tumor response to therapy. Technical developments in field of in vivo MRS have resulted in mapping spatial distribution of metabolites (spectroscopic imaging), improvement in spectral sensitivity and resolution, and determination of absolute concentration of metabolites. The localized proton MRS first reported two decades ago has now emerged as a non-invasive methodology, to be used in clinical settings for the evaluation of…brain and other tumors. The method has shown tremendous potential in the assessment of cancer of different organs, notably, in brain, breast and prostate cancers. Recent developments in MRS technology has made possible to expand its application to other malignancies such as musculoskeletal system, head and neck, and liver. In this review we briefly summarize the potential applications of MRS in diagnosis, staging, monitoring treatment, guiding biopsies and prediction of malignancy in brain, breast and prostate cancers. We also present briefly the current status and limitations of the applications of MRS in musculoskeletal system and liver, as two examples.
Keywords: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cancer, brain, prostate, breast, in vivo